24.03.2021 | Original Article | Ausgabe 7/2021
In vivo characterization of anti-atrial fibrillatory potential and pharmacological safety profile of INa,L plus IKr inhibitor ranolazine using the halothane-anesthetized dogs
Heart and Vessels
- Yoshio Nunoi, Ryuichi Kambayashi, Ai Goto, Mihoko Hagiwara-Nagasawa, Koki Chiba, Hiroko Izumi-Nakaseko, Shinichi Kawai, Yoshinori Takei, Akio Matsumoto, Yoshinori Watanabe, Atsushi Sugiyama
To characterize in vivo anti-atrial fibrillatory potential and pharmacological safety profile of ranolazine having INa,L plus IKr inhibitory actions in comparison with those of clinically available anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs; namely, dronedarone, amiodarone, bepridil and dl-sotalol in our previous studies, ranolazine dihydrochloride in sub-therapeutic (0.3 mg/kg) and supra-therapeutic (3 mg/kg) doses was intravenously infused over 10 min to the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 5). The low dose increased the heart rate, cardiac output and atrioventricular conduction velocity possibly via vasodilator action-induced, reflex-mediated increase of adrenergic tone. Meanwhile, the high dose decreased the heart rate, ventricular contraction, cardiac output and mean blood pressure, indicating that drug-induced direct actions may exceed the reflex-mediated compensation. In addition, it prolonged the atrial and ventricular effective refractory periods, of which potency and selectivity for the former were less great compared with those of the clinically-available drugs. Moreover, it did not alter the ventricular early repolarization period in vivo, but prolonged the late repolarization with minimal risk for re-entrant arrhythmias. These in vivo findings of ranolazine suggest that INa,L suppression may attenuate IKr inhibition-associated prolongation of early repolarization in the presence of reflex-mediated increase of adrenergic tone. Thus, ranolazine alone may be less promising as an anti-atrial fibrillatory drug, but its potential risk for inducing torsade de pointes will be small. These information can be used as a guide to predict the utility and adverse effects of anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs having multi-channel modulatory action.