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01.08.2011 | Leading Article | Ausgabe 8/2011

Clinical Pharmacokinetics 8/2011

In Vivo-In Vitro-In Silico Pharmacokinetic Modelling in Drug Development

Current Status and Future Directions

Clinical Pharmacokinetics > Ausgabe 8/2011
Professor Olavi Pelkonen, Miia Turpeinen, Hannu Raunio


Although clinical drug trials are indispensable in providing an appropriate background for dosage recommendations, they can provide mechanistic pharmacokinetic information only indirectly with the help of certain biomarkers for pathological, physiological and pharmacological determinants. Thus, to provide such mechanistic information of clinical value, various in vitro and in silico tests and approaches are increasingly employed in drug discovery and development. Integration of the results of these primarily preclinical studies has been made possible by various computational models, such as in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of hepatic clearance or physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling. In this article, the current status of these modelling approaches is surveyed and some examples are given, highlighting advantages and disadvantages in applying them at various phases of drug development. A new paradigm of model-based drug development is briefly described, and the importance of the approach of integrating all of the information coming from different investigations at all levels — be it in vivo, in vitro or in silico — is emphasized.

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