Skip to main content

01.12.2017 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

Journal of Translational Medicine 1/2017

In vivo MRI and ex vivo histological assessment of the cardioprotection induced by ischemic preconditioning, postconditioning and remote conditioning in a closed-chest porcine model of reperfused acute myocardial infarction: importance of microvasculature

Journal of Translational Medicine > Ausgabe 1/2017
Tamás Baranyai, Zoltán Giricz, Zoltán V. Varga, Gábor Koncsos, Dominika Lukovic, András Makkos, Márta Sárközy, Noémi Pávó, András Jakab, Csilla Czimbalmos, Hajnalka Vágó, Zoltán Ruzsa, Levente Tóth, Rita Garamvölgyi, Béla Merkely, Rainer Schulz, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Péter Ferdinandy
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12967-017-1166-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Tamás Baranyai and Zoltán Giricz contributed equally to this work
Mariann Gyöngyösi and Péter Ferdinandy contributed equally to this work



Cardioprotective value of ischemic post- (IPostC), remote (RIC) conditioning in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is unclear in clinical trials. To evaluate cardioprotection, most translational animal studies and clinical trials utilize necrotic tissue referred to the area at risk (AAR) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, determination of AAR by MRI‚ may not be accurate, since MRI-indices of microvascular damage, i.e., myocardial edema and microvascular obstruction (MVO), may be affected by cardioprotection independently from myocardial necrosis. Therefore, we assessed the effect of IPostC, RIC conditioning and ischemic preconditioning (IPreC; positive control) on myocardial necrosis, edema and MVO in a clinically relevant, closed-chest pig model of AMI.

Methods and results

Acute myocardial infarction was induced by a 90-min balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in domestic juvenile female pigs. IPostC (6 × 30 s ischemia/reperfusion after 90-min occlusion) and RIC (4 × 5 min hind limb ischemia/reperfusion during 90-min LAD occlusion) did not reduce myocardial necrosis as assessed by late gadolinium enhancement 3 days after reperfusion and by ex vivo triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining 3 h after reperfusion, however, the positive control, IPreC (3 × 5 min ischemia/reperfusion before 90-min LAD occlusion) did. IPostC and RIC attenuated myocardial edema as measured by cardiac T2-weighted MRI 3 days after reperfusion, however, AAR measured by Evans blue staining was not different among groups, which confirms that myocardial edema is not a measure of AAR, IPostC and IPreC but not RIC decreased MVO.


We conclude that IPostC and RIC interventions may protect the coronary microvasculature even without reducing myocardial necrosis.
Additional file 1. Angiographic imaging of the porcine inguinal vasculature, when the wire was not tightened.
Additional file 2. Angiographic imaging of the porcine inguinal vasculature, when the wire was tightened.
Über diesen Artikel

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2017

Journal of Translational Medicine 1/2017 Zur Ausgabe