The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/cc10306) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
HGG has received some reimbursements for advice concerning the technical setup of the experiments, and HGG has some financial interest in an organization that potentially may profit from publication of this manuscript in the future.
MKK drafted the paper and performed experiments, data acquisition and analysis. PFG designed the experimental set-up and performed experiments. HGG designed the electronic instrumentation and assisted during experiments. MRR and IEH contributed to the experimental set-up. PAD and FER contributed to the design of the study and the paper. WFB contributed to the manuscript and the interpretation and statistical analysis of data and the discussion. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Recently, a non-invasive, continuous ventricular stroke volume monitoring system using skin electrodes has been developed. In contrast to impedance-based methods, the new technique (ventricular field recognition) enables measurement of changes in ventricular volume. A prototype using this new method was built (the hemologic cardiac profiler, HCP) and validated against a reference method in a pig model during variations in cardiac output.
In six Dalland pigs, cardiac output was simultaneously measured with the HCP (CO-HCP), and an invasive ultrasonic flow-probe around the ascending aorta (CO-FP). Variations in CO were achieved by change in ventricular loading conditions, cardiac pacing, and dobutamine administration. Data were analysed according to Bland-Altman analysis and Pearson's correlation.
Pearson's correlation between the CO-HCP and the CO-FP was r = 0.978. Bland-Altman analysis showed a bias of - 0.114 L/minute, and a variability of the bias (2 standard deviations, 2SD) of 0.55 L/minute.
The results of the present study demonstrate that CO-HCP is comparable to CO-FP in an animal model of cardiac output measurements during a wide variation of CO. Therefore, the HCP has the potential to become a clinical applicable cardiac output monitor.
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Konings MK: System for measuring ventricular stroke volume. Patent application, published 15. 2010, July , WO 2010080033
- In-vivovalidation of a new non-invasive continuous ventricular stroke volume monitoring system in an animal model
Maurits K Konings
Paul F Grundeman
Henk G Goovaerts
Maarten R Roosendaal
Imo E Hoefer
Pieter A Doevendans
Frank E Rademakers
Wolfgang F Buhre
- BioMed Central
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