23.11.2020 | Review Article
Induced membrane technique: a critical literature analysis and proposal for a failure classification scheme
Laurent Mathieu, Marjorie Durand, Jean-Marc Collombet, Arnaud de Rousiers, Nicolas de l’Escalopier, Alain-Charles Masquelet
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
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The reconstruction of long-bone segmental defects remains challenging, with the three common methods of treatment being bone transport, vascularized bone transfer, and the induced membrane technique (IMT). Because of its simplicity, replicability, and reliability, usage of IMT has spread all over the world in the last decade, with more than 300 papers published in the PubMed literature database on this subject so far. Most of the clinical studies have reported high rates of bone union, yet some also include more controversial results with frequent complications and revision surgeries. At the same time, various experimental research efforts have been designed to understand and improve the biological properties of the induced membrane. This literature review aims to provide an overview of IMT clinical results in terms of bone union and complications and to compare them with those of other reconstructive procedures. In light of our findings, we then propose an original classification scheme of IMT failures distinguishing between preventable and nonpreventable failures.