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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 1/2015

Influence of pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis mismatch on surgical outcomes of short-segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders > Ausgabe 1/2015
Yasuchika Aoki, Arata Nakajima, Hiroshi Takahashi, Masato Sonobe, Fumiaki Terajima, Masahiko Saito, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Seiji Ohtori, Atsuya Watanabe, Takayuki Nakajima, Makoto Takazawa, Sumihisa Orita, Yawara Eguchi, Koichi Nakagawa
Wichtige Hinweise

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Author’s contributions

Author contributions to the manuscript preparation include the following. YA and AN drafted the manuscript, HT, MS, FT, and MS participated in interpretation and acquisition of data, KT and SO participated in its design, conception, and helped to draft the manuscript. AW, TN, MT and SO collected patients’ information and participated in co-ordination and co-wrote the manuscript. KN participated in its design and statistical analysis. YE participated in data acquisition and manuscript revision. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.



The importance of pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (PI-LL: PI minus LL) mismatch is emphasized in long-segment fusion for adult spinal deformity; however, there are few studies evaluating the influence of PI-LL on surgical outcomes after short-segment fusion. In this study, we have examined the effects of PI-LL mismatch on surgical outcomes of short-segment lumbar intervertebral fusion for lumbar degenerative diseases.


Patients with lumbar degenerative disease treated by short-segment (1 or 2 levels) transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion were divided into Group A (PI-LL ≤ 10°: n = 22) and Group B (PI-LL ≥ 11°: n = 30). Pre-and post-operative patient symptoms were assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS: scores 0-100 mm; for LBP, lower-extremity pain, and lower-extremity numbness), a detailed VAS for LBP while in motion, standing, and sitting, and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Surgical outcomes were evaluated by the Nakai score (3 = excellent to 0 = poor. Post-operative data were acquired for at least one year following surgery and were compared between the two groups. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate the relative influence of PI-LL on each pre-and post-operative parameter (VAS, detailed VAS and ODI) adjusted for age, sex, fusion levels, body mass index, presence of scoliosis, diabetes mellitus and depression.


The surgical outcomes in Group A were significantly better than those of Group B. Group A showed better post-operative VAS scores for LBP, particularly LBP while standing (11.9 vs. 25.8). The results of the multivariate analyses showed no significant correlation between PI-LL and pre-operative symptoms, but did show a significant correlation between PI-LL and the post-operative VAS score for LBP, lower extremity pain, and numbness.


This study is the first to find that PI-LL mismatch influences post-operative residual symptoms, such as LBP, lower extremity pain and numbness. Among the three types of LBP examined in the detailed VAS, LBP while standing was most strongly related to PI-LL mismatch. The importance of maintaining spinopelvic alignment is emphasized, particularly when treating patients with adult spinal deformity using long-segment fusion surgery. However, our results indicate that surgeons should pay attention to sagittal spinopelvic alignment and avoid post-operative PI-LL mismatch even when treating patients with short-segment lumbar interbody fusion.
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