SELCoH Study Team: Members of SELCoH study team are listed in Appendix.
Fear of crime and perceived neighbourhood disorder have been linked to common mental illness (CMI). However, few UK studies have also considered the experience of crime at the individual and neighbourhood level. This study aims to identify individual and local area factors associated with increased perceived neighbourhood disorder and test associations between CMI and individuals’ perceptions of disorder in their neighbourhoods, personal experiences of crime and neighbourhood crime rates.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 1,698 adults living in 1,075 households in Lambeth and Southwark, London. CMI was assessed using the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Data were analysed using multilevel logistic regression with neighbourhood defined as lower super output area.
Individuals who reported neighbourhood disorder were more likely to suffer CMI (OR 2.12) as were those with individual experience of crime. These effects remained significant when individual characteristics were controlled for. While 14 % of the variance in perceived neighbourhood disorder occurred at the neighbourhood level, there was no significant variance at this level for CMI.
Perceived neighbourhood disorder is more common in income-deprived areas and individuals who are unemployed. Worry about one’s local area and individual experience of crime are strongly and independently associated with CMI, but neighbourhood crime rates do not appear to impact on mental health.
Mair C, Roux AD, Galea S (2008) Are neighbourhood characteristics associated with depressive symptoms? A review of evidence. J Epidemiol Community Health 62(11):940–946 PubMed
Durkheim E, Spaulding JA, Simpson G (2010) Suicide. Free Press, New York
Faris REL, Dunham HW (1939) Mental disorders in urban areas an ecological study of schizophrenia and other psychoses. University of Chicago Press, Oxford
Goldberg DP, Huxley P (1992) Common mental disorders: a bio-social model. Tavistock/Routledge, London
Mathers C, Fat DM, Boerma J (2008) The global burden of disease: 2004 update. World Health Organization, Geneva
Marmot M, Allen J, Goldblatt P, Boyce T, McNeish D, Grady M, Geddes I (2010) Fair society, healthy lives: strategic review of health inequalities in England post-2010. The Marmot Review, London
Abigail S, Jennifer T, Chris R (2012) Measuring national well-being: life in the UK. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_287415.pdf. Accessed 25 June 2013
Beatty C, Fode M, Lawless P, Wilson I (2010) Exploring and explaining change in regeneration schemes: evidence from the new deal for communities programme, vol 5. Queen’s Printer and Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London
Opinion Research and Statistics team (2011) London borough profiles. Greater London Authority. http://www.data.london.gov.uk. Accessed 8 May 2013
English indices of deprivation 2010 (2011) (trans: Government DoCaL). https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/english-indices-of-deprivation-2010. Accessed 8 May 2013
Hatch SL, Frissa S, Verdecchia M, Stewart R, Fear N, Reichenberg A, Morgan C, Kankulu B, Clarke J, Gazzard B, Medcalf R, SELCoH Team, Hotopf M (2011) Identifying socio-demographic and socioeconomic determinants of health inequalities in a diverse London community: the South East London Community Health (SELCoH) study. BMC Public Health 11:861. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-861 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef
Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1980) Classification of occupations 1980. Her Majesty’s Stationary Office, London
ONS postcode directory (2011) http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/geography/products/postcode-directories/-nspp-/index.html. Accessed 25 Aug 2011
Office for National Statistics (2011) Super output areas explained. http://www.neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk/dissemination/Info.do?page=nessgeography/superoutputareasexplained/output-areas-explained.htm. Accessed 8 May 2013
Department of Communities and Local Government (2010) The English indices of deprivation 2010: statistical release. http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/statistics/pdf/1871208.pdf. Accessed 8 May 2013
McLennan D, Barnes H, Noble M, Davies J, Garratt E, Dibben C (2010) The English indices of deprivation 2010: technical report. Department for Communities and Local Government, London
StataCorp (2009) Stata statistical software: release 11. Stata Corp LP., College Station, TX
Rabe-Hesketh S, Skrondal A, Pickles A (2004) GLLAMM manual. UC Berkeley division of biostatistics working paper series (working paper 160). The Berkley Electronic Press. http://www.bepress.com/ucbbiostat/paper160. Accessed 28 June 2013
Snijders TAB, Bosker RJ (1999) Multilevel analysis: an introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks, SAGE
Statistics OfN (2012) Statistical bulletin: 2011 census: key statistics for England and Wales, March 2011. Accessed 21 Jun 2013
Walker A, Flatley J, Kershaw C, Moon D (2009) Crime in England and Wales 2008/09. Findings from the British Crime Survey and police recorded crime, vol 1. Home Office Statistics Unit, London
Peace IfEa (2013) UK Peace Index: Exploring the fabric of peace in the UK from 2003 to 2012. http://www.economicsandpeace.org. Accessed 24 April 2013
Hollis J, Authority GL, Unit I (2010) Focus on London 2010: population and migration. GLA Intelligence Unit. http://data.london.gov.uk/datastore/applications/focus-london-population-and-migration. Accessed 28 June 2013
Shepherd JSM, Scully C (1989) Recording by the police of violent offences; an Accident and Emergency Department perspective. Med Sci Law 29(3):251–257 PubMed
Galster G (2001) On the nature of neighbourhood. Urban Stud 38(12):2111–2124 CrossRef
Goodchild MF (2010) Geographic information systems. In: Gomez B, Jones JP (eds) Research Methods in Geography. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester
- Influence of perceived and actual neighbourhood disorder on common mental illness
S. L. Hatch
SELCoH study team
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg