The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1129-2377-15-39) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Dagny Holle has received a research grant from Grünenthal. Anke Heber has nothing to disclose. Steffen Nägel has nothing to disclose. Hans-Christoph Diener has received honoraria for participation in clinical trials, contribution to advisory boards or lectures from Addex Pharma, Allergan, Almirall, AstraZeneca, Bayer Vital, Berlin Chemie, Coherex Medical, CoLucid, Böhringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Grünenthal, Janssen-Cilag, Lilly, La Roche, 3 M Medica, Minster, MSD, Novartis, Johnson & Johnson, Pierre Fabre, Pfizer, Schaper and Brümmer, SanofiAventis, and Weber & Weber; received research support from Allergan, Almirall, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Galaxo-Smith-Kline, Janssen-Cilag, and Pfizer. Headache research at the Department of Neurology in Essen is supported by the German Research Council (DFG), the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), and the European Union. Zaza Katsarava has received research grants and honoraria from Allergan, Bayer, Biogen and Merck, and is an advisory board member for Allergan. Headache research at the Department of Neurology in Essen is supported by the German Research Council (DFG), the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), and the European Union. Mark Obermann has received scientific grants by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research BMBF 01EM 0513.
DH has planned and conducted the study, statistical analysis and interpretation of data. AH has conducted the electrophysiological investigations. SN has planned the study and helped with interpretation of data. HCD has planned the study and helped with interpretation of data. ZK has planned the study and helped with interpretation of data. MO has planned the study and helped with interpretation of data. After smoking N2 and P2 latency are significantly reduced showing a facilitation of trigeminal pain processing at supraspinal level. All authors read and approved the final manuscript
Many human and animal studies have shown the influence of nicotine and caffeine on pain perception and processing. This study aims to investigate whether smoking or caffeine consumption influences trigeminal pain processing.
Sixty healthy subjects were investigated using simultaneous recordings of the nociceptive blink reflex (nBR) and pain related evoked potentials (PREP) following nociceptive electrical stimulation on both sides of the forehead (V1). Thirty subjects were investigated before and after smoking a cigarette, as well as before and after taking a tablet of 400 mg caffeine.
After smoking PREP showed decreased N2 and P2 latencies indicating central facilitation at supraspinal (thalamic or cortical) level. PREP amplitudes were not changed. NBR showed a decreased area under the curve (AUC) indicating central inhibition at brainstem level. After caffeine intake no significant changes were observed comparing nBR and PREP results before consumption.
Smoking influences trigeminal pain processing on supraspinal and brainstem level. In the investigated setting, caffeine consumption does not significantly alter trigeminal pain processing. This observation might help in the further understanding of the pathophysiology of pain disorders that are associated with excessive smoking habits such as cluster headache. Previous smoking has to be taken into account when performing electrophysiological studies to avoid bias of study results.
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- Influences of smoking and caffeine consumption on trigeminal pain processing
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