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Erschienen in: Die Anaesthesiologie 4/2021

14.01.2021 | Inhalationsanästhetika | CME

Inhalationsanästhetika

verfasst von: Dr. Jan Jedlicka, Philipp Groene, Julia Linhart, Elisabeth Raith, Davy Mustapha, Peter Conzen

Erschienen in: Die Anaesthesiologie | Ausgabe 4/2021

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Zusammenfassung

Inhalationsanästhetika werden seit mehr als 150 Jahren zur Durchführung von Allgemeinanästhesien verwendet. Alle heute verwendeten Substanzen sind chlorierte und fluorierte Ätherderivate. Ihre Dosierung erfolgt nach dem Konzept der „minimal alveolar concentration“ (MAC). Die pharmakokinetischen Eigenschaften der einzelnen Inhalationsanästhetika werden durch spezifische Verteilungskoeffizienten beschrieben. Die Wirkmechanismen umfassen spezifische Modulationen verschiedener Rezeptoren des Zentralnervensystems (ZNS) und eine unspezifische Interaktion an der Zellmembran. Die Organtoxizität heutiger Inhalationsanästhetika wird als minimal erachtet. Die Rolle von Inhalationsanästhetika im Zusammenhang mit „postoperative nausea and vomiting“ (PONV) ist in den letzten Jahren neu bewertet worden. Unbestritten ist die Überlegenheit von Inhalationsanästhetika gegenüber i.v.-Hypnotika bezüglich intraoperativer Awareness. Den organprotektiven Mechanismus der Präkonditionierung bieten unter den heute verfügbaren Narkosemitteln einzig die Inhalationsanästhetika.
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Metadaten
Titel
Inhalationsanästhetika
verfasst von
Dr. Jan Jedlicka
Philipp Groene
Julia Linhart
Elisabeth Raith
Davy Mustapha
Peter Conzen
Publikationsdatum
14.01.2021