Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2538-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Infectious diseases, particularly those due to multi-drug resistant bacterial strains are almost impossible to cure globally. In this study we investigated the inhibitory effects of Azadirachta indica A. Juss secondary metabolites (AISM) formulated soap and cream for management of infectious and oxidative stress-related diseases (OSD).
The antibacterial, radical scavenging and cytotoxic effects of the neem cosmetics were examined by serial dilution, spectrophotometric and hemolytic techniques respectively, while the AISM in the essential oils (EOs) were elucidated by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and retention index.
The neem cosmetics without AISM exhibited bacteriostatic effects against five reference bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria ivanovii, Enterobacter cloacae, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Streptococcus uberis) and two confirmed multi-drug resistant bacterial strains (Vibrio paraheamolyticues, Escherichia coli 180) at 0.80 mg/mL. Conversely, at less than 0.50 mg/mL the neem soap produced with AISM demonstrated bactericidal effects against most of these test pathogens linked to infectious diseases. The neem soap containing AISMs displayed noteworthy effects in scavenging radicals associated with OSD at < 1.76 mg/mL. The cosmetics were not toxic to human red blood cells below 0.70 mg/ mL. To our known, the AISM predominantly caryophyllene (30.02%), phytol (14.12%), elemene (13.40%) and linoleic acid (10.5%) exceptional inhibitory effects in neem cosmetics are reported here for the first time.
The study indicates that apart from traditional uses of A. indica, the EO contained potent bioactive AISM and feasible as an antimicrobial agent, an alternative to synthetic antioxidant, likewise considered novel in the pharmaceutical, cosmetics industries and as food preservatives.