The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13300-014-0081-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Many individuals with type 2 diabetes in emerging countries are transitioning from vial-and-syringe insulin delivery to that of insulin pens (disposable or reusable). As with all insulin delivery methods, patient preferences and comfort are of utmost importance to optimize adherence to treatment. Patient-preferred characteristics for reusable insulin pens and barriers to appropriate injection, particularly in these regions, have not been widely reported in the clinical literature, highlighting a key information gap for clinicians considering these methods as part of a comprehensive diabetes management approach.
Face-to-face interviews were conducted with people with type 1/2 diabetes, including insulin-naïve and established insulin users. After moderator demonstration, participants were evaluated on their ability to perform a six-step process to inject a 10-unit dose into a pad with the AllStar® (AS; Sanofi, Mumbai, India), HumaPen Ergo II® (HE2; Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, USA), and NovoPen 4® (NP4; Novo Nordisk, Bagsværd, Denmark) pens. Local pens were also tested in India, China and Brazil.
A total of 503 people from India, Malaysia, Brazil, Egypt, and China participated. Participants completed the six-step process in an average, 2–3 min per pen. Participants ranked ease of overall use and ease of self-injection and dialing/reading dose as most important features for new insulin pens. When using the pens, the most difficult step was priming/safety testing, with 7–12% failing and 28–40% having difficulty; 6%, 18%, and 22% failed to hold the injection button down for the required period of time using AS, NP4, and HE2, respectively. Participants ranked AS significantly higher for nine of 12 ease-of-use features including three of the top four features considered the most important for reusable pens, while HE2 was ranked higher for two features. Local pens were ranked lowest.
Priming the pen and injecting the dose imparted most difficulty for people with diabetes in emerging countries. Most participants found AS easiest to use overall, with differences noted between pens for individual steps of dose delivery. Identifying characteristics most preferred by patients may assist in improving adherence to insulin therapy.
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- Initial Experience and Evaluation of Reusable Insulin Pen Devices Among Patients with Diabetes in Emerging Countries
- Springer Healthcare
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