While long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) are the cornerstones of malaria vector control throughout sub-Saharan Africa, there is an urgent need for the development of novel insecticide delivery mechanisms to sustain and consolidate gains in disease reduction and to transition towards malaria elimination and eradication. Insecticide-treated durable wall lining (ITWL) may represent a new paradigm for malaria control as a potential complementary or alternate longer-lasting intervention to IRS. ITWL can be attached to inner house walls, remain efficacious over multiple years and overcome some of the operational constraints of first-line control strategies, specifically nightly behavioural compliance required of LLINs and re-current costs and user fatigue associated with IRS campaigns. Initial experimental hut trials of insecticide-treated plastic sheeting reported promising results, achieving high levels of vector mortality, deterrence and blood-feeding inhibition, particularly when combined with LLINs. Two generations of commercial ITWL have been manufactured to date containing either pyrethroid or non-pyrethroid formulations. While some Phase III trials of these products have demonstrated reductions in malaria incidence, further large-scale evidence is still required before operational implementation of ITWL can be considered either in a programmatic or more targeted community context. Qualitative studies of ITWL have identified aesthetic value and observable entomological efficacy as key determinants of household acceptability. However, concerns have been raised regarding installation feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This paper critically reviews ITWL as both a putative mechanism of house improvement or more conventional intervention and discusses its future prospects as a method for controlling malaria and other vector-borne diseases.
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- Insecticide-treated durable wall lining (ITWL): future prospects for control of malaria and other vector-borne diseases
Louisa A. Messenger
- BioMed Central
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