08.08.2015 | Original Article
Insulin-dependent diabetes and serious trauma
D. Z. Liou, M. B. Singer, G. Barmparas, M. Y. Harada, J. Mirocha, M. Bukur, A. Salim, E. J. Ley
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
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Trauma patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) represent a unique population as the acute injury and the underlying disease may both cause hyperglycemia that leads to poor outcomes. We investigated how insulin-dependent DM (IDDM) and noninsulin-dependent DM (NIDDM) impact mortality after serious trauma without brain injury.
The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) version 7.0 was queried for all patients with moderate to severe traumatic injury [injury severity score (ISS) >9]. Patients were excluded if missing data, age <10 years, severe brain injury [head abbreviated injury scale (AIS) >3], dead on arrival or any AIS = 6. Logistic regression modeled the association between DM and mortality as well as IDDM, NIDDM and mortality.
Overall 166,103 trauma patients without brain injury were analyzed. Mortality was 7.6 and 4.4 % in patients with and without DM, respectively (p < 0.01). Mortality was 9.9 % for patients with IDDM and 6.7 % for NIDDM (p < 0.01). The increased mortality associated with DM was only significantly higher for DM patients in their forties (5.6 vs. 3.3 %, p < 0.01). Regression analyses demonstrated that DM (AOR 1.14, p = 0.04) and IDDM (AOR 1.46, p < 0.01) were predictors of mortality compared to no DM, but NIDDM was not (AOR 1.02, p = 0.83).
While DM was a predictor for higher mortality after serious trauma, this increase was only observed in IDDM and not NIDDM. Our findings suggest IDDM patients who present after serious trauma are unique and attention to their hyperglycemia and related insulin therapy may play a critical role in recovery.