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31.07.2018 | Original Article

Interaction between stress, cytokines, and salivary cortisol in pregnant and non-pregnant women with gingivitis

Zeitschrift:
Clinical Oral Investigations
Autoren:
Fatma Ucan Yarkac, Ozge Gokturk, Osman Demir

Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of periodontal treatment on the inflammatory markers in gingival crevicular fluid and the concentration of salivary cortisol between non-pregnant and pregnant women with gingivitis.

Materials and methods

This study included 30 non-pregnant women (mean age 27.93 ± 6.61 years) and 30 pregnant women (mean age 28.93 ± 4.04 years). Each participant presented with the clinical symptoms of generalized, moderate-to-severe gingivitis. Saliva samples were collected by using the spitting method, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected by using the intrasulcular method at baseline and after 3 weeks. Non-surgical periodontal treatment (NPT) comprising scaling and oral hygiene instruction was administered after sample collection. The interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 levels in GCF and salivary cortisol concentrations were determined with using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results

The pregnant women exhibited significantly deeper pockets (p < 0.05) and greater gingival inflammation (p < 0.05) than the non-pregnant women after periodontal therapy. Moreover, the levels of interleukin-6 in the GCF were significantly higher in the pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant women after periodontal therapy: 17.73 ± 9.82 pg per site and 8.08 ± 4.51 pg per site, respectively, p < 0.05. No differences in the levels of interleukin-10 were observed. The pregnant women also exhibited higher cortisol concentration in the saliva after periodontal therapy, compared to the non-pregnant women, while the levels of stress (as seen on the perceived stress scale-10) were similar in both groups.

Conclusions

Although non-surgical periodontal therapy may reduce the clinical parameters of gingivitis, increasing levels of stress in pregnancy may reduce the individual’s response to it. However, further studies are necessary to substantiate these early findings.

Clinical relevance

Psychosocial stress may increase the risk of periodontal disease by altering the behavioral and immune responses of the individual. Therefore, the levels of stress should be taken into consideration in order to increase the efficacy of periodontal therapy in pregnant patients.

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