10.03.2020 | Original Article
Intracranial pressure monitors associated with increased venous thromboembolism in severe traumatic brain injury
Angela Allen, Areg Grigorian, Ashton Christian, Sebastian D. Schubl, Cristobal Barrios Jr., Michael Lekawa, Borris Borazjani, Victor Joe, Jeffry Nahmias
European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery
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Utilization of intracranial pressure monitors (ICPMs) has not been consistently shown to improve mortality in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A single-center analysis concluded that venous thromboembolism (VTE) chemoprophylaxis (CP) posed no significant bleeding risk in patients following ICPM implementation; however, there is still debate about the optimal use and timing of CP in patients with ICPMs for fear of worsening intracranial hemorrhage. We hypothesized that ICPM use is associated with increased time to VTE CP and thus increased VTE in patients with severe TBI.
A retrospective analysis of the Trauma Quality Improvement Program (2010–2016) was performed to compare severe TBI patients with and without ICPMs. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was completed.
From 35,673 patients with severe TBI, 12,487 (35%) had an ICPM. Those with ICPMs had a higher rate of VTE CP (64.3% vs. 49.4%, p < 0.001) but a longer median time to CP initiation (5 vs. 4 days, p < 0.001) as well as a longer hospital length of stay (LOS) (18 vs. 9 days, p < 0.001) compared to those without ICPMs. After adjusting for covariates, ICPM use was found to be associated with a higher risk of VTE (9.2% vs 4.3%, OR = 1.75, CI = 1.42–2.15, p < 0.001).
Compared to patients without ICPMs, those with ICPMs had a longer delay to initiation of CP leading to an increase in VTE. In addition, there was a nearly two-fold higher associated risk for VTE in patients with ICPMs even when controlling for known VTE risk factors. Improved adherence to initiation of CP in the setting of ICPMs may help decrease the associated risk of VTE with ICPMs.