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28.05.2016 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 8/2016 Open Access

Child's Nervous System 8/2016

Intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates born before 32 weeks of gestation—retrospective analysis of risk factors

Zeitschrift:
Child's Nervous System > Ausgabe 8/2016
Autoren:
Dawid Szpecht, Marta Szymankiewicz, Irmina Nowak, Janusz Gadzinowski

Abstract

Introduction

Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) affects 15–20 % of babies born before 32 weeks of pregnancy. A lot of risk factors of developing IVH are known. The making appropriate recommendations for dealing with infant born less than 32 weeks of gestation aimed at reducing the incidence of IVH is still needed. The study aim was to determine the incidence and analyze risk factors of IVH stage 3 and 4 in infants born before 32 + 0 weeks of pregnancy.

Methods

The retrospective analysis of 267 preterm babies (24 to 32 weeks of gestation) hospitalized in 2011–2013 at Department of Neonatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences was performed. The diagnosis of IVH was confirmed by ultrasound scans according to Papille criteria. Stage 3 and 4 of IVH was confirmed in 14 (25 %) newborns from 23 to 24 weeks of gestation; 21 (37.5 %) from 25 to 26 weeks of gestation; 11 (19.6 %) from 27 to 28 weeks of gestation; 9 (16.1 %) from 29 to 30 weeks of gestation; and 1 (1.8 %) from 31 to 32 weeks of gestation.

Result

The incidence of IVH stage 3 and 4 was higher in children: with less use of AST (OR 1.27; 0.62–2.61), born out of third-level hospitals (OR 2.25; 1.23–4.08), born with asphyxia (OR 3.46; 1.8–6.64), with acidosis treated with NaHCO3 (OR 6.67; 3.78–11.75), those who in the first days of life were treated for hypotension (OR 9.92; 5.12–19.21).

Conclusion

No or uncompleted antenatal steroid therapy increased probability for development of severe intraventricular hemorrhage. Antenatal steroids therapy should be promoted among women at risk of a premature delivery. Hypotension therapy with catecholamines and acidosis with sodium hydrogen carbonate should be carefully considered. The use of appropriate prophylaxis of perinatal (antenatal steroids therapy women at risk of preterm birth, limiting the indications for the use of catecholamines for hypotension treatment and sodium hydrogen carbonate for acidosis therapy, limitation of preterm deliveries outside tertiary referral centeres) significantly reduces the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage stage 3 and 4. The significance of intraventricular hemorrhage creates a need to carry out periodical analysis, at regional level, concerning its incidence, causes and effects to improve local treatment outcomes by identifying further courses of action.

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