The scientific and public debate concerning organized mammography screening is unprecedentedly strong. With research evidence concerning its efficacy being ambiguous, the recommendations pertaining to the age-thresholds for program inclusion vary between – and even within – countries. Data shows that young women who are not yet eligible for systematic screening, have opportunistic mammograms relatively often and, moreover, want to be included in organized programs. Yet, to date, little is known about the precise motivations underlying young women’s desire and intentions to go for, not medically indicated, mammographic screening.
A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among women aged 30-49 years (n = 918) from Switzerland.
The findings show that high fear (β = .08, p ≤ .05), perceived susceptibility (β = .10, p ≤ .05), and ego-involvement (β = .34, p ≤ .001) are the main predictors of screening intentions among women who are not yet eligible for the systematic program. Also, geographical location (Swiss-French group: β = .15, p ≤ .001; Swiss-Italian group: β = .26, p ≤ .001) and age (β = .11, p ≤ .001) play a role. In turn, breast cancer knowledge, risk perceptions, and educational status do not have a significant impact.
Young women seem to differ inherently from those who are already eligible for systematic screening in terms of the factors underlying their intentions to engage in mammographic screening. Thus, when striving to promote adherence to systematic screening guidelines – whether based on unequivocal scientific evidence or policy decisions – and to allow women to make evidence-based, informed decisions about mammography, differential strategies are needed to reach different age-groups.
Heywang-Köbrunner SH, Schreer I, Hacker A, Noftz MR, Katalinic A. Conclusions for mammography screening after 25-year follow-up of the Canadian National Breast Cancer Screening Study (CNBSS). Eur Radiol. 2015;26(2):1-9.
Kopans DB. Arguments against mammography screening continue to be based on faulty science. Oncol. 2014;19(2):107–12. CrossRef
Kopans DB. An open letter to panels that are deciding guidelines for breast cancer screening. Breast Cancer Res Tr. 2015;151(1):19–25. CrossRef
Yaffe MJ. Point: Mammography screening—sticking to the science. Cur Oncol. 2015;22(3):174. CrossRef
Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Bouvard V, Bianchini F, Straif K. Breast-cancer screening—viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. N Eng J Med. 2015;372(24):2353–8. CrossRef
Gøtzsche PC, Jørgensen KJ. Screening for breast cancer with mammography. Cochrane Library. 2013.
US Preventive Services. Breast Cancer: Screening. 2015. Available from: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Topic/recommendation-summary/breast-cancer-screening. Accessed Nov 2015.
Perry N, Broeders M, De Wolf C, Törnberg S, Holland R, Von Karsa L. European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis. —summary document. An Oncol. 2008;19(4):614–22. CrossRef
Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Breast Cancer Screening Programme. 2015. Available from: http://www.kreftregisteret.no/en/Cancer-prevention/Breast-Cancer-Screening-Programme/. Accessed Nov 2015.
National Institute for Health and the Environment. Breast cancer screening programme. 2015. Available from: http://www.rivm.nl/en/Topics/B/Breast_cancer_screening_programme. Accessed Nov 2015.
Swiss Cancer Screening. Graph illustrating the presence of breast cancer screening programs across Swiss cantons. 2015. Available from: http://www.swisscancerscreening.ch/kantone/ihr-kanton. Accessed Jan 2017.
Schulz PJ, Meuffels B. “It is about our body, our own body!”: On the difficulty of telling dutch women under 50 that mammography is not for them. J Argumentation Context. 2012;1(1):130–42. CrossRef
Schulz PJ, Meuffels B. Differential appraisal of age thresholds for mammographic screening in Holland and Switzerland. J Commun Healthc. 2015;8(1):32–44. CrossRef
Kapp JM, Ryerson AB, Coughlin SS, Thompson TD. Racial and ethnic differences in mammography use among US women younger than age 40. Breast Cancer Res Tr. 2009;113(2):327–37. CrossRef
Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. CBS: Ruim de helft van de vrouwen laat uitstrijkje maken. 2015. Available from: http://www.cbs.nl/nl-NL/menu/themas/gezondheid-welzijn/publicaties/artikelen/archief/2015/ruim-de-helft-van-de-vrouwen-laat-uitstrijkje-maken.htm. Accessed Nov 2015.
Swiss Federal Statistical Office Swiss Health Survey 2012. Accessed. Available from: http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/en/index/themen/14/22/publ.html. Accessed Nov 2015.
Rutledge DN, Barsevick A, Knobf MT, Bookbinder M. Breast cancer detection: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of women from Pennsylvania. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2001;28(6):1032–40. PubMed
Schueler KM, Chu PW, Smith-Bindman R. Factors associated with mammography utilization: a systematic quantitative review of the literature. J Womens Health. 2008;17(9):1477–98. CrossRef
Pink Ribbon International. Mammograms. 2015. Available from: http://pinkribbon.org/?s=mammography. Accessed Nov 2015.
McCance KL, Mooney KH, Smith KR, Field R. Validity and reliability of a breast cancer knowledge test. Am J Prev Med. 1989;6(2):93–8.
Daly MB, Lerman CL, Ross E, Schwartz MD, Sands CB, Masny A. Gail model breast cancer risk components are poor predictors of risk perception and screening behavior. Breast Cancer Res Tr. 1996;41(1):59–70. CrossRef
Zaichkowsky JL. Measuring the involvement construct. J Consum Res. 1985: 341-352.
Zaichkowsky JL. The personal involvement inventory: reduction, revision, and application to advertising. J Advert. 1994;23(4):59–70. CrossRef
Raffle AE, Gray JAM. Screening: evidence and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2007. CrossRef
Welch HG, Black WC. Overdiagnosis in cancer. J Natl Cancer I. 2010;102(9):605–13. CrossRef
- Investigating young women’s motivations to engage in early mammography screening in Switzerland: results of a cross-sectional study
Nanon H. M. Labrie
Peter J. Schulz
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Onkologie
Mail Icon II