The non-ionic agent iohexol is increasingly used as the marker of choice for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Estimates of GFR in children have low accuracy and limiting the number of blood-draws in this patient population is especially relevant. We have performed a study to evaluate different formulas for calculating measured GFR based on plasma iohexol clearance with blood sampling at only one time point (GFR1p) and to determine the optimal sampling time point.
Ninety-six children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 1–5 (median age 9.2 years; range 3 months to 17.5 years) were examined in a cross-sectional study using iohexol clearance and blood sampling at seven time points within 5 h (GFR7p) as the reference method. Median GFR7p was 66 (range 6–153) mL/min/1.73 m2. The performances of six different single time-point formulas (Fleming, Ham and Piepsz, Groth and Aasted, Stake, Jacobsson- and Jacobsson-modified) were validated against the reference. The two-point GFR (GFR2p) was calculated according to the Jødal and Brøchner–Mortensen formula.
The GFR1p calculated according to Fleming with sampling at 3 h (GFR1p3h-Fleming) had the best overall performance, with 82% of measures within 10% of the reference value (P10). In children with a GFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 78), the GFR1p3h-Fleming had a P10 of 92.3%, which is not significantly different (p = 0.29) from that of GFR2p (P10 = 96.2%). Considerable differences within and between the different formulas were found for different CKD stages and different time points for blood sampling.
For determination of mGFR in children with CKD and an assumed GFR of ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 we recommend GFR1p3h-Fleming as the preferred single-point method as an alternative to GFR2p. For children with a GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, we recommend the slope-GFR with at least two blood samples.
Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT01092260, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01092260?term=tondel&rank=2
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- Iohexol plasma clearance in children: validation of multiple formulas and single-point sampling times
Cathrin Lytomt Salvador
Karl Ove Hufthammer
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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