The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-017-1540-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
A number of epidemiological studies have examined the effect of meat consumption on depression. However, no conclusion has been reached. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between meat consumption and depression.
The electronic databases of PUBMED and EMBASE were searched up to March 2017, for observational studies that examined the relationship between meat consumption and depression. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of depression and the relative risk (RR) for the incidence of depression, as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were calculated respectively (the highest versus the lowest category of meat consumption).
A total of eight observational studies (three cross-sectional, three cohort and two case-control studies) were included in this meta-analysis. Specifically, six studies were related to the prevalence of depression, and the overall multi-variable adjusted OR suggested no significant association between meat consumption and the prevalence of depression (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.22; P = 0.469). In contrast, for the three studies related to the incidence of depression, the overall multi-variable adjusted RR evidenced an association between meat consumption and a moderately higher incidence of depression (RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.24; P = 0.013).
Meat consumption may be associated with a moderately higher risk of depression. However, it still warrants further studies to confirm such findings due to the limited number of prospective studies.
Additional file 1: Table S1. The methodological quality of cross-sectional studies in accordance with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Table S2. The methodological quality of cohort studies in accordance with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Table S3. The methodological quality of case-control studies in accordance with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). (DOCX 26 kb)
Jung A, et al. Zinc deficiency is associated with depressive symptoms-results from the Berlin aging study II. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2017;72(8):1149–54. PubMed
Gartlehner G, et al. Comparative effectiveness of second-generation antidepressants in the pharmacologic treatment of adult depression. AHRQ comparative effectiveness reviews. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2007.
Battaglia RE, et al. Health risks associated with meat consumption: a review of epidemiological studies. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2015;85(1–2):70–8. CrossRef
King JC. An evidence-based approach for establishing dietary guidelines. J Nutr. 2007;137(2):480–3. PubMed
GA Wells, et al., The Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for assessing the quality of nonrandomized studies in meta-analyses. http://www.ohri.ca/programs/clinical_epidemiology/oxford.asp, 2010. 50(4): p. 1088-1101.
Sumaya IC, Bailey D, Catlett SL. Differential effects of a short-term high-fat diet in an animal model of depression in rats treated with the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron, the 5-HT3 receptor agonist, 2-methyl-5-HT, and the SSRI, fluoxetine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016;144:78–84. CrossRefPubMed
Jakobsen LM, et al. Impact of red meat consumption on the metabolome of rats. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017;61(3):1–10. CrossRef
- Is meat consumption associated with depression? A meta-analysis of observational studies
- BioMed Central