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Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders OnlineFirst articles

20.10.2021 Open Access

Factors influencing the levothyroxine dose in the hormone replacement therapy of primary hypothyroidism in adults

Levothyroxine (LT4) is a safe, effective means of hormone replacement therapy for hypothyroidism. Here, we review the pharmaceutical, pathophysiological and behavioural factors influencing the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of …

Philippe Caron, Solange Grunenwald, Luca Persani, Françoise Borson-Chazot, Remy Leroy, Leonidas Duntas


Diabetes complications and extracellular vesicle therapy

Diabetes is a chronic disorder characterized by dysregulated glycemic conditions. Diabetic complications include microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities and account for high morbidity and mortality rates in patients. Current clinical …

Setareh Soltani, Kamran Mansouri, Shahram Parvaneh, Avnesh S. Thakor, Flemming Pociot, Reza Yarani

24.09.2021 | COVID-19 Zur Zeit gratis

Clinical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vitamin D

COVID-19 and the endocrine system: special issue for reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders (Felipe Casaneuva, Editor in Chief) A. Giustina and JP Bilezikian, Guest Editors

In December 2019, the first cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome due to a new coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2), later designated as Covid-19, were described in China. With rapid advance of the infection to several continents, in March 2020, WHO …

Leonardo Bandeira, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Neil Binkley

20.09.2021 Open Access

The TWEAK/Fn14/CD163 axis—implications for metabolic disease

TWEAK (tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis) is a member of the TNF superfamily that controls a multitude of cellular events including proliferation, migration, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammation. TWEAK …

Wiktoria Ratajczak, Sarah D Atkinson, Catriona Kelly


The role of transforming growth factor beta in thyroid autoimmunity: current knowledge and future perspectives

The complex mechanisms, which are related to the pathophysiology and the development of autoimmune thyroid diseases, involve transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and its interplay with the immune system. The aim of this review is to examine the …

Kardalas Efstratios, Sakkas Evangelos, Ruchala Marek, Macut Djuro, Mastorakos George

14.09.2021 Open Access

Leptin as a key regulator of the adipose organ

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced by the adipose tissue in proportion to the size of fat stores, with a primary function in the control of lipid reserves. Besides adipose tissue, leptin is also produced by other tissues, such as the stomach …

Catalina Picó, Mariona Palou, Catalina Amadora Pomar, Ana María Rodríguez, Andreu Palou


The emerging role of transcription factor FOXP3 in thyroid cancer

Transcription factor FOXP3 is a crucial regulator in the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg) that are essential for immunological tolerance and homeostasis. Numerous studies have indicated the correlation of tumor infiltrating …

Zhongqin Gong, Hao Jia, Lingbin Xue, Dongcai LI, Xianhai Zeng, Minghui Wei, Zhimin Liu, Michael C. F. Tong, George G. Chen


The effects of cannabis and cannabinoids on the endocrine system

With the increase in cannabis use due to policy changes and areas of decriminalization, it is important to recognize the potential impact of these substances on endocrine processes. Cannabinoids have many effects by activating the endocannabinoid …

Farah Meah, Michelle Lundholm, Nicholas Emanuele, Hafsa Amjed, Caroline Poku, Lily Agrawal, Mary Ann Emanuele

17.08.2021 Open Access

Hormonal treatments for endometriosis: The endocrine background

Endometriosis is a benign uterine disorder characterized by menstrual pain and infertility, deeply affecting women’s health. It is a chronic disease and requires a long term management. Hormonal drugs are currently the most used for the medical …

Silvia Vannuccini, Sara Clemenza, Margherita Rossi, Felice Petraglia


Applications of artificial intelligence (AI) in researches on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) : A systematic review

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important causes of chronic liver disease in the world, it has been found that cardiovascular and renal risks and diseases are also highly prevalent in adults with NAFLD. Diagnosis and …

Yifang Li, Xuetao Wang, Jun Zhang, Shanshan Zhang, Jian Jiao

13.08.2021 | COVID-19 Zur Zeit gratis

COVID-19 and hypopituitarism

Besides the pulmonary manifestations caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an emerging endocrine phenotype, which can heavily impact on the severity of the syndrome, has been recently associated with …

Stefano Frara, Paola Loli, Agnese Allora, Chiara Santini, Luigi di Filippo, Pietro Mortini, Maria Fleseriu, Andrea Giustina

31.07.2021 | COVID-19 Zur Zeit gratis

Basic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection. What endocrine systems could be implicated?

Although SARS-CoV-2 viral attacks starts by the interaction of spike protein (S Protein) to ACE2 receptor located at the cell surface of respiratory tract and digestive system cells, different endocrine targets, endocrine organs and metabolic …

Berta Soldevila, Manel Puig-Domingo, Mónica Marazuela

29.07.2021 | COVID-19 Open Access

Vitamin D, infections and immunity

Vitamin D, best known for its role in skeletal health, has emerged as a key regulator of innate immune responses to microbial threat. In immune cells such as macrophages, expression of CYP27B1, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1α-hydroxylase, is induced by …

Aiten Ismailova, John H. White


Mechanisms and management of drug-induced hyperkalemia in kidney transplant patients

Hyperkalemia is a common and potentially life-threatening complication following kidney transplantation that can be caused by a composite of factors such as medications, delayed graft function, and possibly potassium intake. Managing hyperkalemia …

John G. Rizk, Jose G. Lazo Jr., David Quan, Steven Gabardi, Youssef Rizk, Elani Streja, Csaba P. Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh


Shifts in gut microbiota and their metabolites induced by bariatric surgery. Impact of factors shaping gut microbiota on bariatric surgery outcomes

Evidence suggests that bariatric surgery alters gut microbiota, although its impact at compositional and functional level is not well described. In this review, the most relevant findings, mainly described in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and sleeve …

Carolina Gutiérrez-Repiso, Isabel Moreno-Indias, Francisco J. Tinahones

17.07.2021 | Unsolicited Review

Repurposing sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) for cancer treatment – A Review

Developed as an antidiabetic drug, recent evidence suggests that several sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), especially canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, may exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities in selected cancer …

Kristy T. K. Lau, Lui Ng, Jason W. H. Wong, Herbert H. F. Loong, Wendy W. L. Chan, Chi Ho Lee, Carlos K. H. Wong

09.07.2021 | COVID-19 Open Access

Endocrine risk factors for COVID-19: Endogenous and exogenous glucocorticoid excess

Patients with endogenous or exogenous glucocorticoid (GC) excess exhibit a range of side effects, including an increased risk of infections. Via both mechanism, immune impairments and cardiometabolic concomitant diseases, patients with GC excess …

Frederick Vogel, Martin Reincke

09.07.2021 Open Access

Inborn errors of metabolism: Lessons from iPSC models

The possibility of reprogramming human somatic cells to pluripotency has opened unprecedented opportunities for creating genuinely human experimental models of disease. Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) constitute a greatly heterogeneous class of …

Rubén Escribá, Raquel Ferrer-Lorente, Ángel Raya


Lessons from bariatric surgery: Can increased GLP-1 enhance vascular repair during cardiometabolic-based chronic disease?

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity represent entangled pandemics that accelerate the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the immense burden of CVD in society, non-invasive prevention and treatment strategies to promote cardiovascular …

Ehab Bakbak, Daniella C. Terenzi, Justin Z. Trac, Hwee Teoh, Adrian Quan, Stephen A. Glazer, Ori D. Rotstein, Mohammed Al-Omran, Subodh Verma, David A. Hess

01.07.2021 | COVID-19 Zur Zeit gratis

Functional ACE2 deficiency leading to angiotensin imbalance in the pathophysiology of COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, uses angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as its primary cell-surface receptor. ACE2 is a key enzyme in the counter-regulatory pathway of the broader renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that has been …

Joshua R. Cook, John Ausiello