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Sports Medicine OnlineFirst articles

12.07.2019 | Original Research Article

Comparing the Effectiveness of Blood Flow Restriction and Traditional Heavy Load Resistance Training in the Post-Surgery Rehabilitation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patients: A UK National Health Service Randomised Controlled Trial

Following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery, patients experience significant loss of lower limb strength due to muscle atrophy and arthrogenic inhibition [ 1 , 2 ]. Knee extensor (KE) and flexor (KF) muscle weakness is …

Luke Hughes, Benjamin Rosenblatt, Fares Haddad, Conor Gissane, Daniel McCarthy, Thomas Clarke, Graham Ferris, Joanna Dawes, Bruce Paton, Stephen David Patterson

12.07.2019 | Original Research Article

Motor Competence Levels and Developmental Delay in Early Childhood: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in the USA

Nationally representative data indicate a decreasing percentage of children meet US physical activity guidelines of 60 min of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity (PA) per day (i.e., ≈ 40–50% for preschoolers; 42.0% for age 6–11 years; …

Ali Brian, Adam Pennell, Sally Taunton, Angela Starrett, Candice Howard-Shaughnessy, Jacqueline D. Goodway, Danielle Wadsworth, Mary Rudisill, David Stodden

10.07.2019 | Systematic Review

Match and Training Injuries in Women’s Rugby Union: A Systematic Review of Published Studies

Rugby union is an international collision sport played at junior [ 1 – 4 ], amateur [ 3 , 5 – 11 ], elite [ 12 , 13 ] and professional [ 14 – 20 ] levels of participation. The game of rugby union has gained international popularity with …

Doug King, Patria Hume, Cloe Cummins, Alan Pearce, Trevor Clark, Andrew Foskett, Matt Barnes

03.07.2019 | Systematic Review

Test–Retest Reliability of the Yo-Yo Test: A Systematic Review

The Yo-Yo test variants are widely used because of their simplicity (i.e., these tests are of low cost as they require only cones and speakers), high validity for estimating the capacity of an individual to perform repeated exercise, and because …

Jozo Grgic, Luca Oppici, Pavle Mikulic, Jens Bangsbo, Peter Krustrup, Zeljko Pedisic

03.07.2019 | Systematic Review

The Impact of Different Types of Exercise Training on Peripheral Blood Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Concentrations in Older Adults: A Meta-Analysis

Improved medicine and healthcare has led to an increased life expectancy by 3.3 years in the last 14 years [ 1 ]. However, age-related structural brain changes and consequently cognitive changes are inevitable [ 2 ]. Brain volume losses in the …

Nastasia Marinus, Dominique Hansen, Peter Feys, Raf Meesen, Annick Timmermans, Joke Spildooren

02.07.2019 | Systematic Review Open Access

The Effects of Continuous Compared to Accumulated Exercise on Health: A Meta-Analytic Review

Globally, approximately one quarter of adults (23.3%) are failing to meet current recommendations for physical activity [ 1 ]. Since 1995, the US physical activity guidelines have recommended that physical activity can be accumulated in shorter …

Marie H. Murphy, Ian Lahart, Angela Carlin, Elaine Murtagh

01.07.2019 | Review Article

Physiological Impact and Clinical Relevance of Passive Exercise/Movement

Passive exercise/movement has a long history in both medicine and physiology. Early clinical applications of passive exercise/movement utilized pneumatic and direct limb compression to stimulate the vasculature and evoke changes in blood flow to …

Joel D. Trinity, Russell S. Richardson

28.06.2019 | Current Opinion

A Method to Stop Analyzing Random Error and Start Analyzing Differential Responders to Exercise

It is commonly stated that individuals respond differently to exercise even when the same exercise intervention is performed. This has led many researchers to conduct exercise interventions and subsequently categorize individuals into different …

Scott J. Dankel, Jeremy P. Loenneke

21.06.2019 | Current Opinion

Increased Risk of Musculoskeletal Injury Following Sport-Related Concussion: A Perception–Action Coupling Approach

Recent studies have concluded that athletes have increased risk of musculoskeletal injury following sport-related concussion. While an underlying explanation is still unknown, perceptual-motor control may be implicated in this increased risk. Some …

Shawn R. Eagle, Anthony P. Kontos, Gert-Jan Pepping, Caleb D. Johnson, Aaron Sinnott, Alice LaGoy, Chris Connaboy

18.06.2019 | Current Opinion

The Translation of Sport Science Research to the Field: A Current Opinion and Overview on the Perceptions of Practitioners, Researchers and Coaches

Evidence-based practice (EBP) is the collated integration of practitioner expertise, athlete values and research evidence aimed to optimise the decision-making process surrounding sport performance. Despite the academic interest afforded to sport …

Hugh H. K. Fullagar, Alan McCall, Franco M. Impellizzeri, Terry Favero, Aaron J. Coutts

17.06.2019 | Review Article Open Access

The Biomechanics of the Track and Field Sprint Start: A Narrative Review

The start from blocks is a fundamental component of all track and field sprint events (≤ 400 m). This narrative review focusses on biomechanical aspects of the block phase and the subsequent first flight and stance phases. We discuss specific …

Neil Edward Bezodis, Steffen Willwacher, Aki Ilkka Tapio Salo

15.06.2019 | Review Article

Resistance Priming to Enhance Neuromuscular Performance in Sport: Evidence, Potential Mechanisms and Directions for Future Research

Recent scientific evidence supports the use of a low-volume strength–power ‘resistance priming’ session prior to sporting competition in an effort to enhance neuromuscular performance. Though research evidence relating to this strategy is …

Peter W. Harrison, Lachlan P. James, Mike R. McGuigan, David G. Jenkins, Vincent G. Kelly

12.06.2019 | Review Article

Resistance Training and Skeletal Muscle Protein Metabolism in Eumenorrheic Females: Implications for Researchers and Practitioners

Resistance training is essential for health and performance and confers many benefits such as increasing skeletal muscle mass, increasing strength and power output, and improving metabolic health. Resistance training is a major component of the …

Olivia E. Knowles, Brad Aisbett, Luana C. Main, Eric J. Drinkwater, Liliana Orellana, Séverine Lamon

11.06.2019 | Systematic Review

Use of Social or Behavioral Theories in Exercise-Related Injury Prevention Program Research: A Systematic Review

Musculoskeletal injuries are common among those who participate in physical activity [ 1 – 4 ]. These injuries have several short-term consequences such as functional limitations, time loss from participation in occupational and recreational …

Emily H. Gabriel, Ryan S. McCann, Matthew C. Hoch

10.06.2019 | Current Opinion

Is Fatigue a Risk Factor for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture?

Neuromuscular fatigue is a commonly accepted risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. It has been proposed that fatigue leads to transient reductions in muscle strength, and deleterious changes in lower limb kinematics and …

Matthew N. Bourne, Kate E. Webster, Timothy E. Hewett

07.06.2019 | Systematic Review

Frequency and Magnitude of Game-Related Head Impacts in Male Contact Sports Athletes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Athletes competing in contact and collision sports are at greater risk of concussion when compared to the general population [ 1 , 2 ]. Every year approximately 3.8 million sports-related concussions are reportedly sustained by athletes in the USA …

Jack V. K. Nguyen, James H. Brennan, Biswadev Mitra, Catherine Willmott

03.06.2019 | Position Statement Open Access

Methodological Issues in Soccer Talent Identification Research

Talent identification research in soccer comprises the prediction of elite soccer performance. While many studies in this field have aimed to empirically relate performance characteristics to subsequent soccer success, a critical evaluation of the …

Tom L. G. Bergkamp, A. Susan M. Niessen, Ruud. J. R. den Hartigh, Wouter G. P. Frencken, Rob R. Meijer

03.06.2019 | Commentary

Causal Mediation Analysis Could Resolve Whether Training-Induced Increases in Muscle Strength are Mediated by Muscle Hypertrophy

Resistance training increases muscle size (i.e., causes hypertrophy) and muscle strength, particularly in untrained individuals. Hypertrophy is widely believed to be one of the mechanisms (i.e., a mediator) by which resistance training increases …

James L. Nuzzo, Harrison T. Finn, Robert D. Herbert

29.05.2019 | Systematic Review Open Access

Your Personal Motivator is with You: A Systematic Review of Mobile Phone Applications Aiming at Increasing Physical Activity

Physical activity (PA) improves physical and mental health and reduces disease risks and overall premature mortality [ 1 , 2 ]. According to recent findings, insufficient PA is one of the leading risk factors globally for adult mortality [ 3 ] and …

Masoumeh Hosseinpour, Ralf Terlutter

18.05.2019 | Systematic Review

Factors Influencing the Relationship Between the Functional Movement Screen and Injury Risk in Sporting Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Although injury mechanisms are complex and multifactorial, there are a variety of intrinsic risk factors that can potentially lead to increased injury risk; for example, history of previous injury, joint instabilities, muscular strength imbalances …

Emma Moore, Samuel Chalmers, Steve Milanese, Joel T. Fuller