Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited recessive disease rarely complicated with glaucoma. We conducted a clinical and genetic retrospective case series to describe three cases of juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) and an ND4 m11778G > A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation, which is pathognomonic for LHON.
Patient 1 was a 16-year-old boy diagnosed with bilateral JOAG and high myopia. His intraocular pressure (IOP) was poorly controlled with the use of full topical anti-glaucoma medications. His best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) decreased gradually over 5 years. Fundoscopic examination revealed bilateral enlarged disc cupping of the optic nerves with sectorial excavation and reduction of the neural rim in the left eye. His visual field (VF) was characterized by bilateral progressive central scotoma. Pattern visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and pattern electroretinograms (ERGs) showed extinguished responses in both eyes. Because of the non-specific visual field findings and the optic neuropathy disclosed by the pattern VEPs and pattern ERGs, we arranged a genetic test for the patient, which revealed an m11778G > A mtDNA mutation. Patient 2, the younger brother of Patient 1, was a 15-year-old boy who had been diagnosed with bilateral JOAG in 2010. The BCVA of both eyes remained at 1.0 during the follow-up period. Fundoscopic examination revealed bilateral mildly paled optic disc with enlarged cupping and reduction of the neural rim. The pattern ERG revealed a decreased N95 amplitude bilaterally. The genetic test revealed an m11778G > A mtDNA mutation. Patient 3 was a 35-year-old man with bilateral JOAG. His BCVA decreased gradually over 10 years. Fundoscopic examination revealed paled optic disc with enlarged disc cupping and reduction of the neural rim in both eyes. The pattern ERG revealed a decreased N95 amplitude bilaterally. The genetic test revealed an m11778G > A mtDNA mutation.
This case series describes three patients with concomitant occurrence of JOAG and LHON. These two diseases may have a cumulative effect on oxidative stress and retinal ganglion cell death with the rapid deterioration of vision, which may occur during adolescence.
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- Juvenile open-angle Glaucoma associated with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy: a case report and literature review
- BioMed Central