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01.12.2017 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

BMC Nephrology 1/2017

Kidney disease in Uganda: a community based study

BMC Nephrology > Ausgabe 1/2017
Robert Kalyesubula, Joaniter I. Nankabirwa, Isaac Ssinabulya, Trishul Siddharthan, James Kayima, Jane Nakibuuka, Robert A. Salata, Charles Mondo, Moses R. Kamya, Donald Hricik



Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The majority of studies on CKD in SSA have been conducted among HIV-infected populations and mainly from large health facilities. We determined the prevalence of CKD and its predictors among populations in communities in central Uganda.


A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wakiso district using multi-stage sampling. Data was collected on age, sex, socio-economic status, history of alcohol intake, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and smoking. Measurement of blood pressure, weight and height to determine body mass index (BMI) and investigations including HIV testing, fasting blood sugar, creatinine and urinalysis were conducted. Logistic regression was used to estimate the strength of the association between variables and the presence of CKD estimated using the Cockcroft Gault formula.


A total of 955 participants aged 18–87 years were enrolled into the study. The median age was 31 years (Interquartile range 24–42) and majority (67%) were female. Up to 21.4% (204/955) had abnormal renal function with CKD stage 1 in 6.2% (59/955), stage 2 in 12.7% (121/955), stage 3 in 2.4% (23/955), CKD stage 4 in 0% and CKD stage 5 in 0.1% (1/995). Female gender OR 1.8 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.2–2.8), age >30 years OR 2.2(95% CI 1.2–3.8) and high social economic status OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.3–3.6) were associated with increased risk of CKD while BMI > 25Kg/m2 was protective against CKD OR 0.1 (95% CI 0.04–0.2). Traditional risk factors such as HIV-infection, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol intake were not found to be significantly associated with CKD.


We found a high prevalence of kidney disease in central Uganda. Interestingly the traditional risk factors associated with CKD previously documented, were not associated with CKD.
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