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29.08.2018 | Koronare Herzerkrankung | Positionspapier

Bedeutung von psychosozialen Faktoren in der Kardiologie – Update 2018

Positionspapier der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kardiologie

verfasst von: Prof. Dr. C. Albus, FESC, C. Waller, K. Fritzsche, H. Gunold, M. Haass, B. Hamann, I. Kindermann, V. Köllner, B. Leithäuser, N. Marx, M. Meesmann, M. Michal, J. Ronel, M. Scherer, V. Schrader, B. Schwaab, C. S. Weber, C. Herrmann-Lingen

Erschienen in: Die Kardiologie | Ausgabe 5/2018

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Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Psychosoziale Faktoren bei Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen sind zunehmend in das Bewusstsein von Patienten, Leistungserbringern und Kostenträgern gerückt. Aufgrund der rasch anwachsenden Evidenz hat die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kardiologie ein Update des gleichnamigen Positionspapiers aus dem Jahr 2013 in Auftrag gegeben.

Methoden

Der Stand des Wissens zu den wichtigsten Herz-Kreislauferkrankungen wird synoptisch dargestellt und es werden Empfehlungen für die Berücksichtigung psychosozialer Aspekte in der klinischen Praxis abgeleitet.

Ergebnisse

Psychosoziale Faktoren wie niedriger sozialer Status, akuter oder chronischer Stress, Depression, Angst und Mangel an sozialer Unterstützung sind mit einem erhöhten Erkrankungsrisiko und mit einem ungünstigeren Krankheitsverlauf verknüpft. Psychosoziale Belastungen und psychische Begleiterkrankungen sollten routinemäßig erfasst werden, sodass sich ggf. gezielt weitere Diagnostik und Therapie anschließen können. Allen Patienten soll ein Behandlungsangebot gemacht werden, das alters- und geschlechtsspezifische Aspekte sowie die individuellen Präferenzen der Patienten berücksichtigt. Multimodale Behandlungsansätze sollen Wissensvermittlung, Sport- und Bewegungstherapie, Motivationsförderung sowie Entspannungsverfahren bzw. Stressmanagement umfassen. Bei psychischer Komorbidität sollen psychosomatische Grundversorgung sowie psychotherapeutische Interventionen und/oder Medikation angeboten werden. Bei guter Wirksamkeit auf psychische Symptome ist ein Effekt hinsichtlich der kardialen Prognose noch unklar.

Schlussfolgerungen

Bei der KHK, Herzinsuffizienz, arteriellen Hypertonie und bei Herzrhythmusstörungen besteht eine robuste Evidenz hinsichtlich der Bedeutung psychosozialer Faktoren, die eine Berücksichtigung in der kardiologischen Versorgung sinnvoll macht. Der Grad der Umsetzung in der klinischen Praxis ist jedoch defizitär und der Effekt psychotherapeutischer bzw. pharmakologischer Interventionen auf die Prognose ungewiss. Entsprechend werden sowohl weitere Behandlungsstudien als auch intensivierte Fort- und Weiterbildungsangebote gefordert.
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Metadaten
Titel
Bedeutung von psychosozialen Faktoren in der Kardiologie – Update 2018
Positionspapier der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kardiologie
verfasst von
Prof. Dr. C. Albus, FESC
C. Waller
K. Fritzsche
H. Gunold
M. Haass
B. Hamann
I. Kindermann
V. Köllner
B. Leithäuser
N. Marx
M. Meesmann
M. Michal
J. Ronel
M. Scherer
V. Schrader
B. Schwaab
C. S. Weber
C. Herrmann-Lingen
Publikationsdatum
29.08.2018
Verlag
Springer Medizin
Erschienen in
Die Kardiologie / Ausgabe 5/2018
Print ISSN: 2731-7129
Elektronische ISSN: 2731-7137
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12181-018-0271-4

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