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09.12.2015 | Original Contribution | Ausgabe 2/2017

European Journal of Nutrition 2/2017

Lebanese children are iodine deficient and urinary sodium and fluoride excretion are weak positive predictors of urinary iodine

Zeitschrift:
European Journal of Nutrition > Ausgabe 2/2017
Autoren:
Hala Ghattas, Sirine Francis, Carla El Mallah, Dareen Shatila, Karina Merhi, Sani Hlais, Michael Zimmermann, Omar Obeid

Abstract

Purpose

To assess iodine and fluoride status among Lebanese children.

Methods

A nationally representative cross-sectional study of 6- to 10-year-old schoolchildren was conducted using multistage cluster sampling. Spot urine samples were collected from 1403 children, and urinary iodine, fluoride, creatinine and sodium levels were measured. Salt samples from markets (n = 30) were tested for iodine concentration by titration.

Results

Median urinary iodine concentration was 66.0 µg/l, indicating mild deficiency, and almost 75 % of Lebanese children had a urinary iodine concentration (UIC) <100 µg/l. UIC was higher among children from private schools and in areas of higher socioeconomic status. Most salt samples were fortified at levels far below the legislated requirement, and 56 % of samples contained less than 15 ppm iodine. Fluoride-to-creatinine ratio (F/Cr) was 0.250 (0.159–0.448) mg/g. There were weak positive correlations between UIC and urinary sodium (r2 = 0.039, P value <0.001) and UIC and urinary fluoride (r2 = 0.009, P value <0.001).

Conclusions

Lebanese elementary school children are iodine deficient due to inadequately iodized salt. The weak correlation between UIC and urinary sodium suggests most dietary iodine does not come from iodized salt. The poor correlation between UIC and urinary fluoride suggests that fluoride intake is not affecting iodine metabolism. Efforts are needed in Lebanon to improve industry compliance with salt fortification through improved monitoring and enforcement of legislation.

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