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01.08.2011 | Review | Ausgabe 4/2011 Open Access

Insights into Imaging 4/2011

Left ventricular apical diseases

Insights into Imaging > Ausgabe 4/2011
Silvia Cisneros, Ricardo Duarte, Gabriel C. Fernandez-Perez, Daniel Castellon, Julia Calatayud, Iñigo Lecumberri, Eneritz Larrazabal, Berta Irene Ruiz
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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s13244-011-0091-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.


There are many disorders that may involve the left ventricular (LV) apex; however, they are sometimes difficult to differentiate. In this setting cardiac imaging methods can provide the clue to obtaining the diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the spectrum of diseases that most frequently affect the apex of the LV including Tako-Tsubo cardiomyopathy, LV aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms, apical diverticula, apical ventricular remodelling, apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, LV non-compaction, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia with LV involvement and LV false tendons, with an emphasis on the diagnostic criteria and imaging features.
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