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01.12.2018 | Case report | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

BMC Nephrology 1/2018

Leptospirosis presenting as haemolytic uraemic syndrome: a case report

Zeitschrift:
BMC Nephrology > Ausgabe 1/2018
Autoren:
Vasantha Muthu Muthuppalaniappan, Ravindra Rajakariar, Mark John Blunden

Abstract

Background

Leptospirosis is a rare infectious disease especially in Western Countries. Renal involvement is a recognised complication of leptospirosis but leptospirosis-associated haemolytic uraemic syndrome is extremely rare and to our knowledge has only been reported once, in 1985.

Case presentation

A 29-year-old male was transferred to our Renal Unit with fevers, myalgia and diarrhoeal illness. Laboratory investigations revealed an acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, significantly raised lactate dehydrogenase with marked anaemia, thrombocytopenia and schistocytes on a blood film. A diagnosis of haemolytic uraemic syndrome was made. Surprisingly, the stool culture was negative which led to a suspicion of leptospirosis as one of the differential diagnoses. This was subsequently confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and microscopic agglutination test. He received plasma exchange and antibiotics and made a complete recovery on discharge.

Conclusion

Leptospirosis presenting as haemolytic uraemic syndrome is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis especially in the presence of significant liver injury, as current evidence suggests that the disease is re-emerging.
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