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25.07.2017 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 11/2017

Child's Nervous System 11/2017

LIN28A, a sensitive immunohistochemical marker for Embryonal Tumor with Multilayered Rosettes (ETMR), is also positive in a subset of Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT)

Zeitschrift:
Child's Nervous System > Ausgabe 11/2017
Autoren:
Shilpa Rao, R. T. Rajeswarie, T. Chickabasaviah Yasha, Bevinahalli N. Nandeesh, Arimappamagan Arivazhagan, Vani Santosh

Abstract

Introduction

CNS embryonal tumors comprise a group of highly malignant neoplasms with a wide spectrum of histomorphological entities that includes Medulloblastoma (MB), Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor (AT/RT), Neuroblastoma (NB), Ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB), Embryonal Tumor with Multilayered Rosettes (ETMR), and the embryonal tumor—Not Otherwise Specified (NOS). The entity ETMR includes previously described histopathologic patterns—Embryonal Tumor with Abundant Neuropil and True Rosettes (ETANTR), Ependymoblastoma (EBL), and Medulloepithelioma (MEPL). Based on the histopathological similarities (multilayered rosettes) among ETANTR, EBL, and MEPL, as well as uniform clinical behavior and common molecular genetic characteristics, the WHO revision has created a new entity, “ETMR.” Immunoreactivity of LIN28A has been identified as a sensitive tool for the diagnosis of this entity. Since there is a paucity of literature regarding immunoreactivity of LIN28A across all embryonal CNS tumors, the present study was undertaken.

Materials and methods

During the 5-year study period (2012 to 2016), all the embryonal tumors (MB, AT/RT, other embryonal tumors—ETANTR, MEPL, PNET) that had been earlier diagnosed in the department of neuropathology (cases operated in our institute as well as received as referral) were reviewed. The archived Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and the available immunohistochemistry (IHC) sections were studied. Further, for the other embryonal tumors where the paraffin blocks were available, an extended panel of IHC was performed for confirming the diagnosis of embryonal tumor and only confirmed cases were included in the study. The demographic details of the study cohort were noted. IHC for LIN28A was performed on conventional sections.

Results

A total of 396 cases of embryonal tumors including 302 MB, 72 AT/RT, and 22 other embryonal tumors were diagnosed during the study period. Among these, 80 MB, 35 AT/RT, 4 ETANTR, 1 MEPL, 4 NB, 2 GNB, and 1 CNS embryonal tumor-NOS (total—127) were included for the study. LIN28A immunoreactivity was absent in all MB, GNB, NB, and CNS embryonal tumors-NOS whereas all cases of ETMR (4 ETANTR, 1 MEPL) and 8/35 (23%) of AT/RT showed immunopositivity for LIN28A, which was patchy and distinct in most of the cases of ETMR.

Conclusion

Our study reiterates that LIN28A is a sensitive IHC marker for the diagnosis of ETMR. We also show that among CNS embryonal tumors, LIN28A is not specific to ETMRs and such immunoreactivity can also be seen in a proportion of AT/RTs.

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