26.07.2017 | Original Article
Long-Term Outcome of Adenosine Deaminase-Deficient Patients—a Single-Center Experience
Ori Scott, Vy Hong-Diep Kim, Brenda Reid, Anne Pham-Huy, Adelle R. Atkinson, Alessandro Aiuti, Eyal Grunebaum
Journal of Clinical Immunology
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Inherited defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme can cause severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) and systemic abnormalities. Management options for ADA-deficient patients include enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and gene therapy (GT). Here, we describe the long-term benefits of these treatments.
Survival, infections, systemic sequelae, and laboratory assessments were recorded for all ADA-deficient SCID patients, managed at a single center since 1985, who survived 5 or more years following treatment.
Of 20 ADA-deficient patients, the 8 (40%) who survived 5 or more years (range 6–29.5 years, median 14 years) were included in the study. Among the long-term survivors, two patients were treated exclusively with ERT, five underwent HSCT (three from HLA-matched sibling donors, two from HLA-mismatched related donors), and one received GT. The long-term survivors often suffered from recurrent respiratory infections; however, opportunistic infections occurred in only one patient. Systemic sequelae included lung disease such as bronchiectasis and asthma (four patients), neurologic abnormalities (six patients), metabolic disturbances (two patients), allergy and autoimmunity (six patients), and neoplasms (three patients). Normal CD4+ T cell numbers and function, as well as antibody production, were usually observed after HSCT and GT, but not after ERT. Late deaths occurred in two patients at 15 and 25 years after HSCT, respectively, and were attributed to respiratory failure.
ADA-deficient patients commonly suffer from long-term complications, emphasizing the need for improved management and for multi-disciplinary follow-up.