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01.05.2015 | Original Contribution | Ausgabe 3/2016

European Journal of Nutrition 3/2016

Longitudinal associations of serum fatty acid composition with type 2 diabetes risk and markers of insulin secretion and sensitivity in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study

Zeitschrift:
European Journal of Nutrition > Ausgabe 3/2016
Autoren:
Markus J. Takkunen, Ursula S. Schwab, Vanessa D. F. de Mello, Johan G. Eriksson, Jaana Lindström, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti I. J. Uusitupa, the DPS Study Group
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s00394-015-0911-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the longitudinal associations of serum fatty acid composition with type 2 diabetes, insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity over several years.

Methods

We conducted a prospective cohort study derived from the randomized Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Total serum fatty acid composition was measured using gas chromatography in 407 overweight, middle-aged people with impaired glucose tolerance at baseline (1993–1998) and annually during the intervention period (1994–2000). Longitudinal associations of 20 fatty acids and three desaturase activities (Δ5 (20:4n-6/20:3n-6, D5D), Δ6 (18:3n-6/18:2n-6, D6D), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (16:1n-7/16:0, SCD-1)) with type 2 diabetes incidence, and estimates of insulin sensitivity (Matsuda), secretion (ratio of insulin and glucose concentrations) and β-cell function (disposition index) by an oral glucose tolerance test were analyzed using Cox regression and linear mixed models. We validated estimated D5D and D6D using a known FADS1 gene variant, rs174550.

Results

The baseline proportions of 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and D5D were associated with lower incidence of type 2 diabetes during a median follow-up of 11 years (HR per 1SD: 0.72, 0.74, 0.73, 0.78, respectively, P ≤ 0.01). These long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and D5D were associated with higher insulin sensitivity in subsequent years but not with disposition index. Saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids and 18:3n-3, 18:2n-6, SCD-1 and D6D were inconsistently associated with type 2 diabetes or related traits.

Conclusions

Serum long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and D5D predicted lower type 2 diabetes incidence in people at a high risk of diabetes attending to an intervention study; a putative mechanism behind these associations was higher insulin sensitivity.

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