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01.12.2017 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2017 Open Access

BMC Infectious Diseases 1/2017

Looking back to move forward: a twenty-year audit of herpes zoster in Asia-Pacific

Zeitschrift:
BMC Infectious Diseases > Ausgabe 1/2017
Autoren:
Liang-Kung Chen, Hidenori Arai, Liang-Yu Chen, Ming-Yueh Chou, Samsuridjal Djauzi, Birong Dong, Taro Kojima, Ki Tae Kwon, Hoe Nam Leong, Edward M. F. Leung, Chih-Kuang Liang, Xiaohong Liu, Dilip Mathai, Jiun Yit Pan, Li-Ning Peng, Eduardo Rommel S. Poblete, Philip J. H. Poi, Stewart Reid, Terapong Tantawichien, Chang Won Won
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12879-017-2198-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Background

Herpes zoster (HZ) is a prevalent viral disease that inflicts substantial morbidity and associated healthcare and socioeconomic burdens. Current treatments are not fully effective, especially among the most vulnerable patients. Although widely recommended, vaccination against HZ is not routine; barriers in Asia-Pacific include long-standing neglect of adult immunisation and sparse local data. To address knowledge gaps, raise awareness, and disseminate best practice, we reviewed recent data and guidelines on HZ from the Asia-Pacific region.

Methods

We searched PubMed, Scopus, and World Health Organization databases for articles about HZ published from 1994 to 2014 by authors from Australia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. We selected articles about epidemiology, burden, complications, comorbidities, management, prevention, and recommendations/guidelines. Internet searches retrieved additional HZ immunisation guidelines.

Results

From 4007 retrieved articles, we screened-out 1501 duplicates and excluded 1264 extraneous articles, leaving 1242 unique articles. We found guidelines on adult immunisation from Australia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand.
HZ epidemiology in Asia-Pacific is similar to elsewhere; incidence rises with age and peaks at around 70 years – lifetime risk is approximately one-third. Average incidence of 3–10/1000 person-years is rising at around 5% per year. The principal risk factors are immunosenescence and immunosuppression. HZ almost always causes pain, and post-herpetic neuralgia is its most common complication. Half or more of hospitalised HZ patients have post-herpetic neuralgia, secondary infections, or inflammatory sequelae that are occasionally fatal. These disease burdens severely diminish patients’ quality of life and incur heavy healthcare utilisation.

Conclusions

Several countries have abundant data on HZ, but others, especially in South-East Asia, very few. However, Asia-Pacific countries generally lack data on HZ vaccine safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Physicians treating HZ and its complications in Asia-Pacific face familiar challenges but, with a vast aged population, Asia bears a unique and growing burden of disease. Given the strong rationale for prevention, most adult immunisation guidelines include HZ vaccine, yet it remains underused. We urge all stakeholders to give higher priority to adult immunisation in general and HZ in particular.
Zusatzmaterial
Additional file 1: Appendix 1. Alternative approaches to treating herpes zoster and herpetic neuralgia. (PDF 340 kb)
12879_2017_2198_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
Literatur
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