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22.12.2018 | Original Article | Ausgabe 3/2019 Open Access

Virchows Archiv 3/2019

M-CSF and IL-34 expression as indicators for growth in sporadic vestibular schwannoma

Virchows Archiv > Ausgabe 3/2019
W. M. de Vries, I. H. Briaire-de Bruijn, P. P. G. van Benthem, A. G. L. van der Mey, P. C. W. Hogendoorn
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Macrophage colony stimulating factor and IL-34 are associated with clinical vestibular schwannoma progression. Investigating the biology behind vestibular schwannoma progression helps understanding tumor growth. Inflammation is important in the microenvironment of neoplasms. Macrophages are major players in the intratumoral infiltrate. These tumor-associated macrophages are known to stimulate angiogenesis and cell growth. M-CSF and IL-34 are cytokines that can regulate tumor-infiltrating macrophages. They are expressed by tumors and form potential targets for therapy. The goal of this study was to investigate these cytokines in vestibular schwannomas and to see if their expression is related to angiogenesis, macrophage numbers, cystic degeneration, and volumetric tumor progression. Immunohistochemical expression of M-CSF and IL-34 was analyzed in ten fast-growing vestibular schwannomas and in ten slow-growing vestibular schwannomas. Expression M-CSF and IL-34 were compared between fast- versus slow-growing and cystic versus non-cystic tumors. Data on macrophage numbers and microvessel density, known from earlier research, was also included. All tumors expressed M-CSF and its expression was higher in fast-growing tumors (p = 0.003) and in cystic tumors (p = 0.035). CD163 expression was higher in tumors with strong M-CSF expression (p = 0.003). All tumors expressed IL-34 as well, but no significant differences were found in relation to clinicopathological characteristics. This study demonstrated the expression of M-CSF and IL-34 in vestibular schwannomas. The results suggest that M-CSF is related to macrophage activity and tumor progression, making it a potential target for therapy. If a similar assumption can be made for IL-34 remains unclear.

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