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01.06.2009 | Ausgabe 6/2009

World Journal of Surgery 6/2009

Management of Cystic Echinococcosis Complications and Dissemination: Where is the Evidence?

World Journal of Surgery > Ausgabe 6/2009
Chadli Dziri, Karim Haouet, Abe Fingerhut, Abdeljelil Zaouche


This systematic review was designed to provide “evidence-based” answers to identify the best treatment for a complicated hydatid cyst of the liver and the appropriate management of disseminated cystic echinococcosis. An extensive electronic search of the relevant literature was performed using Medline and the Cochrane Library. This systematic review enabled us make to determine the best treatment options for the following conditions. Liver hydatid cysts ruptured into the biliary tract: Common bile duct exploration should be conducted using intraoperative cholangiography and choledoscopy. When the biliary tract is cleared of all cystic content, T-tube drainage should be sufficient. The principal difficulty concerned the management of the large biliocystic fistula: suture or internal transfistulary drainage or fistulization. Medical treatment is indicated in association with surgery for 3 months postoperatively. During the preoperative period, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) combined with preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) may decrease the incidence of postoperative external fistula. Liver hydatid cysts involving the thorax: An abdominal approach is mandatory when common bile duct drainage is required, and it may be sufficient to treat a direct rupture into bronchi. An acute abdomen, owing to Liver hydatid cysts ruptured into peritoneum, requires an emergent operation. Medical treatment should be associated. Cystic echinococcosis of the lung: Surgery is still the main therapeutic option to remove the cyst, suture bronchial fistula if necessary, followed by capitonnage. Osseous cystic echinococcosis: Wide surgical excision is recommended. Cystic echinococcosis of the heart: Cystopericystectomy is the “gold standard” procedure but is sometimes unsuitable for particular sites. Cystic echinococcosis of the kidney: Cystectomy with pericystectomy is feasible in 75% of cases; nephrectomy must be reserved for destroyed kidney. Multiple associated cystic echinococcosis locations: Complicated cysts should be treated with high priority. In case of several cysts in the liver, spleen, and peritoneum, removal of all cysts in the same intervention is indicated when there is no threat to the life of the patient. Otherwise, a planned reoperation should be considered.

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