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01.12.2019 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 1/2019

Management of Juvenile Hallux Valgus Deformity: the role of combined Hemiepiphysiodesis

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders > Ausgabe 1/2019
Ming-Hung Chiang, Ting-Ming Wang, Ken N. Kuo, Shier-Chieg Huang, Kuan-Wen Wu
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This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of percutaneous hemiepiphysiodesis for gradual correction of symptomatic juvenile hallux valgus (HV) deformity.


Between 2012 to 2014, 24 patients with symptomatic juvenile HV were treated by combined percutaneous medial drilling hemiepiphysiodesis of the first proximal phalanx and lateral transphyseal screw hemiepiphysiodesis of the first metatarsal at our institution. Twenty-one of 24 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria had a complete radiological and clinical follow-up of at least 2 years. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs of the feet were reviewed for measurements of hallux valgus angle (HVA), intermetatarsal angle (IMA), proximal metatarsal articular angle (PMAA), proximal phalangeal articular angle (PPAA), and metatarsal length ratio (MTLR). Clinical outcomes were assessed using the AOFAS hallux metatarsophalangeal-interphalangeal score.


The study included 21 consecutive patients (37 ft) for analysis. The mean age at surgery was 12.0 years (SD = 1.3) and mean follow-up after surgery was 35.1 months (SD = 6.0). With the data available, the HV deformity improved in terms of the reduction of HVA by a mean of 4.7 degrees (P < .001) and the reduction of IMA by 2.2 degrees (P < .001). The PMAA and PPAA also improved significantly in the anteroposterior plane; however, the PMAA difference was insignificant in lateral plane as expected. The mean difference in the MTLR was 0.00 (P = .216) which was indicative of no length discrepancy between first and second metatarsals. The AOFAS score increased from 68.7 to 85.2 (P < .001). In correlation analysis, time to physeal closure was significantly correlated with the final HVA change (r = −.611, P = .003).


Although combined hemiepiphysiodesis does not create a large degree of correction as osteotomy, yet it did improve HV deformity with adequate growth remaining in our series. It is a procedure that can be of benefit to patients with symptomatic juvenile HV from this minimal operative approach before skeletal maturity.

Level of evidence

Level IV, retrospective case series.
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