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15.04.2017 | Retinal Disorders | Ausgabe 7/2017

Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 7/2017

Massive subretinal and subretinal pigment epithelial hemorrhage displacement with perfluorocarbon liquid using a two-step vitrectomy technique

Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology > Ausgabe 7/2017
Efrat Fleissig, Adiel Barak, Michaela Goldstein, Anat Loewenstein, Shulamit Schwartz



The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and visual outcome of massive submacular hemorrhage (SMH) displacement with a planned two-step pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) tamponade.


A retrospective case series of patients with age related macular degeneration and SMH was used. All patients underwent a 23G PPV, subretinal tPA injection and a medium term PFCL tamponade. A second stage PPV for PFCL removal was performed 7-17 days later. The main outcome was the change in macular and sub-RPE thickness after 6 months. Secondary outcomes were visual acuity and complications.


Seven patients (seven eyes) with mean age of 79.85 years were enrolled. The average SMH size was 17.5 disc area (range 4.5-33) with mean symptoms of a duration of 9.5 days (range: 2-21). SMH was successfully displaced in six eyes. Mean macular and sub-RPE thickness decreased from 1505μ to 711.3μ and 900 μ to 457μ, respectively. Visual acuity (VA) remained stable in five eyes. Complications included corneal edema and transient intraocular pressure elevation in three patients.


SMH displacement using subretinal tPA injection and medium term PFCL tamponade is an effective alternative treatment option. In our experience, it can be safely performed, avoiding complications commonly attributed to other techniques.

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