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20.01.2015 | Original Article | Ausgabe 4/2016

Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery 4/2016

Maxillofacial Infections of Odontogenic Origin: Epidemiological, Microbiological and Therapeutic Factors in an Indian Population

Zeitschrift:
Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery > Ausgabe 4/2016
Autor:
V. Yuvaraj

Abstract

Odontogenic fascial space infections are commonly encountered by the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. A retrospective study of the epidemiological characteristics, microbiological analysis and treatment response to odontogenic infections treated in the oral and maxillofacial unit of a Dental school is presented. A retrospective analysis of case records of all odontogenic infections that reported to the oral and maxillofacial surgery unit in a Dental school over a period of 2 years was performed. Epidemiological data, microbiological profile and treatment responses were analysed. All data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS statistical package. Mann–Whitney U test, Kruskal–Wallis test and nonparametric tests were carried out. A total of 2,140 patients were included in this study. Mandibular third molars were the offending tooth in nearly 40 % of cases with 107 patients becoming symptomatic following a dental extraction procedure. All patients were treated with surgical incision and drainage, antibiotics and local wound care. More than 95 % cases needed intraoral incisions. Penicillin was the drug in most of the cases. The pterygomandibular space was the most commonly involved with 15 % reporting with multiple fascial space involvement. Microbiological analysis showed a predominance of aerobic gram positive organisms with Streptococcus sanguis most commonly isolated. Peptostreptococci and Propionibacterium were the common anaerobes isolated. More than 80 % of the strains isolated were sensitive to penicillin. The average length of stay was 6.3 days. Inadequate documentation with regards to referral patterns, antibiotic history was commonly observed in case records. Penicillin continues to remain the drug of choice for a vast majority of maxillofacial infections of odontogenic origin. A delay in reporting can lead to worsening of symptoms with consequent increase in surgical morbidity and costs of treatment. Preventive dental care remains the best option available to mitigate the consequences of poor oral hygiene. Poor awareness among patient population for regular dental reviews and oral hygiene maintenance emphasises the need for sensitisation and education programs.

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