The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
KM and MB designed the study. MP, FM, RJ, and NP collected and analyzed data. All authors contributed to interpretation of data. MP and FM drafted the manuscript. RJ, NP, KM, and MB all revised the manuscript for critical content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
On December 16, 2012 a 23 year old female was gang-raped on a bus in Delhi. We systematically reviewed professional online media sources used to inform the timing, breadth of coverage, opinions and consistency in the depiction of events surrounding the gang-rape.
We searched two news databases (LexisNexis Academic and Factivia) and individual newspapers for English-language published media reports covering the gang-rape. Two reviewers screened the media reports and extracted data regarding the time, location and content of each report. Results were summarized qualitatively.
We identified 534 published media reports. Of these, 351 met our eligibility criteria. Based on a time chart, the total number of reports published increased steadily through December, but plateaued to a steady rate of articles per day by the first week of January. Content analysis revealed significant discrepancies between various media reports. From the 57 articles which discussed opinions about the victim, 56% applauded her bravery, 40% discussed outrage over the events and 11% discussed cases of victim-blaming.
The global media response of the December 16th gang-rape in India resulted in highly inconsistent depiction of the events. These findings suggest that although the spread of information through media is fast, it has major limitations.
Delhi student critical after being gang-raped in moving bus, four held. The Times of India 2012 Dec 17 [ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Delhi-Student-Critical-After-Being-Gang-raped-In-Moving-Bus,-Four-Held]
Ghosh D: Assailants in bus tried to run over Delhi gang-rape victim. The Times of India 2013 Jan 2 [ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/assailants-in-bus-tried-to-run-over-delhi-gang/rape-victim/articleshow/17848452.cms]
Bhatt A: Victim of gang rape in India dies at hospital in Singapore. New Delhi Television 2012 Dec 28 [ http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/victim-of-gang-rape-in-india-dies-at-hospital-in-singapore-310939]
Delhi gang-rape victim battles on, undergoes fifth surgery. Zeenews 2012 Dec 19 [ http://zeenews.india.com/news/delhi/delhi-gang-rape-victim-battles-on-undergoes-fifth-surgery_817569.html]
Delhi gang rape case: Victim shifted out of Safdarjung hospital, headed for Singapore. The Times of India 2012 Dec 26 [ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Delhi-Gang-Rape-Case:-Victim-Shifted-Out-Of-Safdarjung-Hospital,-Headed-For-611-Singapore]
Delhi gang rape: Girl’s condition deteriorates with severe organ failure, put on maximum life support. The Times of India 2012 Dec 28 [ http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-12-28/india/36035787_1_brain-injury-delhi-gang-condition]
Delhi gangrape victim succumbs to injuries at Mount Elizabeth Hospital in Singapore. India Today 2012 Dec 29 [ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/delhi-gangrape-victim-passes-away-in-singapore-hospital/1/239912.html]
Gang-rape victim’s body to be brought back today. The Hindu 2012 Dec 29 [ http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/gangrape-victims-body-to-be-brought-back-today/article4252092.ece]
Sikdar S: Rape victim cremated in a rush and away from the public eye. The Hindu 2012 Dec 30 [ http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/rape-victim-cremated-in-a-rush-and-away-from-the-public-eye/article4255503.ece]
George N: Indians protest across the country after gang-rape on bus, while new rapes of girls reported. Global News 2012 Dec 19 [ http://globalnews.ca/news/321017/indians-protest-across-the-country-after-gang-rape-on-bus-while-new-rapes-of-girls-reported/]
Dead cop Subhash Tomar was beaten up by protesters, third witness says. The Times of India 2012 Dec 27 [ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Dead-Cop-Subhash-Tomar-Was-Beaten-Up-By-Protesters,-Third-Witness-Says]
Toronto protesters rally at Indian consulate over country’s treatment of women. Global News 2013 Jan 3 [ http://globalnews.ca/news/324859/toronto-protesters-rally-at-indian-consulate-over-countrys-treatment-of-women/]
Indians in Australia, Thailand hold rally in support of Delhi rape victim. The Times of India 2012 Dec 27 [ http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-12-27/other-news/36021114_1_indian-diaspora-indian-consulate-new-delhi]
Ambirajan S. Globalization, media and culture. Econ Polit Weekly. 2000;35(25):2141–7.
Johnston H. Social Movements and Culture. London, England: Routledge; 2003.
Van Aelst P, Walgrave S. New media, new movements? The role of the internet in shaping the ‘anti‐globalization’ movement. Inform Comm Soc. 2002;5(4):465–93. CrossRef
Harassmap: The Map [ harassmap.org/en/?page_id=93]
Sikdar S: Gang-raped in moving bus, girl fights for life in Delhi hospital. The Hindu 2012 Dec 17 [ http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/gangraped-in-moving-bus-girl-fights-for-life-in-delhi-hospital/article4208833.ece]
Med student gang-raped in moving bus. The Times of India 2012 [Available from: the Factivia database]
Delhi horror: Rapists wanted to ‘teach girl a lesson'. Zeenews 2012 Dec 18 [ http://zeenews.india.com/news/delhi/delhi-horror-rapists-wanted-to-teach-girl-a-lesson_817383.html]
Brain swelling led to death of Delhi gang-rape victim. Zeenews 2012 Dec 29 [ http://zeenews.india.com/news/delhi/brain-swelling-led-to-death-of-delhi-gang-rape-_819517.html]
Cabinet sets up commission to stop crime against women. Business Standard 2012 Dec 27 [ http://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/cabinet-sets-up-commission-to-stop-crime-against-women-112122702029_1.html]
"I want to live," Delhi gangrape victim tells her mother in a brief note. India Today 2012 Dec 19 [ http://www.tehelka.com/protest-and-road-blockade-against-the-gangrape-case-in-delhi/]
Agrawal A: Protest and road-blockade against the gangrape case in Delhi. Tehelka 2012 Dec 18 [ http://tehelka.com/protest-and-road-blockade-against-the-gangrape-case-in-delhi/]
13 days that shook the nation: timeline of Delhi gangrape case. IBN Live 2012 Dec 29 [ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Delhi-Gang-Rape:-Protesters-Try-To-Break-Police-Barricades-At-Jantar-Mantar]
Delhi gang rape: protesters try to break police barricades at Jantar Mantar. The Times of India 2012 Dec 30 [ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Delhi-Gang-Rape:-Guwahati-To-Jaipur,-Calls-For-Justice]
Delhi gang rape: Guwahati to Jaipur, calls for justice. The Times of India 2012 Dec 24 [ http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-12-24/india/35991486_1_delhi-gang-rapists-check-crime]
India rape prompts Toronto silent protest. Huffington Post 2013 Jan 1 [ http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2013/01/03/toronto-protest-india-rape-_n_2405263.html]
Delhi gang-rape victim gets symbolic name 'Damini'. India Today 2012 Dec 24 [ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/delhi-gangrape-victim-gets-symbolic-name-damini/1/239237.html]
Gang-rape death of Indian woman sets off national debate. CTV news 2012 Dec 31 [ http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Delhi-Gang-rape-Victim-As-Guilty-As-Her-Rapists,-Asaram-Bapu-Says]
Delhi gang-rape victim as guilty as her rapists, Asaram Bapu says. The Times of India 2013 Jan 7 [ http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-01-07/india/36192073_1_asaram-bapu-sharma-and-akshay-thakur-chargesheet]
Ministry of Home Affairs: National Crime Records Bureau [ http://reason.com/archives/2013/06/19/feminism-cant-cure-indias-rape-epidemic]
Dalmia S: Feminism can’t cure India's rape epidemic. Reason Magazine 2013 Jun 19 [ http://reason.com/archives/2013/06/19/feminism-cant-cure-indias-rape-epidemic]
- Media coverage of violence against women in India: a systematic study of a high profile rape case
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe
Meistgelesene Bücher aus dem Fachgebiet
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II