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01.06.2014 | Otology | Ausgabe 6/2014

European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 6/2014

Memantine’s action against aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity

Zeitschrift:
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology > Ausgabe 6/2014
Autoren:
Pavlos Pavlidis, Jan Maurer, Eirini Apostolidou, Georgios Kekes, Dimitrios Kouvelas

Abstract

The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the protective role of NMDA antagonists against the ototoxic effects of aminoglycosides, (2) to provide any possible evidence between ototoxicity due to aminoglycosides and excitotoxicity. An animal experiment was conducted. Twenty-eight, 3-month-old female New Zealand rabbits, weighing 1,000–1,500 g, were studied prospectively for 28 days after intramuscular administration of amikacin (15 mg/kg/day divided into two equal doses) for 14 days. Twenty-one rabbits were categorized into three equal treatment groups and seven animals received no medication and served as the control group. The animals of A, B and C groups were injected, intramuscularly, with amikacin 15 mg/kg/day, divided into two equal doses every day for 14 days. Animals of group A received in parallel memantine (per os) and those of group B received p.o. the same volume of placebo solution. The rabbits of the third group (group C) received on the 15th day and every 2 days for the next 2 weeks, until the day 28, memantine of the same quantity as the members of group A. Differences in DPOAE amplitudes, and therefore in cochlear activity, between group A and group B were revealed. DPOAE amplitudes of group B were further reduced compared to the respective amplitudes in rabbits of group A. No improvement was observed in DPOAE measurements performed after the discontinuation of injections. The findings in group C should be examined separately. The measurements showed apparent reversal ototoxic effects in four of the animals. The development of aminoglycoside otoprotective strategies is a primary goal in ototoxicity research. The administration of NMDA antagonists has been shown to prevent, at least to some extent, toxic damage to hair cells in guinea pigs, treated with aminoglycoside antibiotics.

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