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01.12.2018 | Research | Ausgabe 1/2018 Open Access

Annals of Intensive Care 1/2018

Midazolam increases preload dependency during endotoxic shock in rabbits by affecting venous vascular tone

Annals of Intensive Care > Ausgabe 1/2018
Jianxiao Chen, Tao Yu, Federico Longhini, Xiwen Zhang, Songqiao Liu, Ling Liu, Yi Yang, Haibo Qiu



Septic patients often require sedation in intensive care unit, and midazolam is one of the most frequently used sedatives among them. But the interaction between midazolam and septic shock is not known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of midazolam on preload dependency in an endotoxic shock model by evaluating systemic vascular tone and cardiac function.


Eighteen rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control group, MID1 group and MID2 group. Rabbits underwent ketamine anaesthesia and mechanical ventilation, and haemodynamic assessments were recorded in three groups (T0). Endotoxic shock was induced by lipopolysaccharide intravenously, and fluid resuscitation and norepinephrine were administered to obtain the baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP) (T1). Rabbits received equivalent normal saline (Control) and two consecutive dosages of midazolam: 0.3 mg kg−1 h−1 (MID1) and 3 mg kg−1 h−1 (MID2) (T2). Rabbits received another round of fluid challenge and norepinephrine infusion to return the MAP to normal (T3).


No significant differences in haemodynamic parameters were observed in three groups at T0, T1 or T3. Midazolam infusion significantly increased pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) compared to the values in Control group, and MAP, central venous pressure (CVP), mean systemic filling pressure (Pmsf) and cardiac output (CO) decreased at T2. Same effects were observed with increasing doses of midazolam, and resistance for venous return (Rvr) decreased (MID1 vs. MID2) at T2. PPV and SVV increased significantly at T2 compared to the values at T1. MAP, CVP, Pmsf and CO decreased in MID1 and MID2 groups. Rvr also decreased in MID2 group (T2 vs. T1). Midazolam did not affect cardiac function index, systemic vascular resistance or artery resistance (T2 vs. T1).


Midazolam administration promoted preload dependency in septic shock models via decreased venous vascular tone without affecting cardiac function.
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