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01.12.2015 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2015 Open Access

BMC Public Health 1/2015

Mobility dynamics of migrant workers and their socio-behavioral parameters related to malaria in Tier II, Artemisinin Resistance Containment Zone, Myanmar

BMC Public Health > Ausgabe 1/2015
Thaung Hlaing, Khin Thet Wai, Tin Oo, Nyan Sint, Tun Min, Shwe Myar, Khin Nan Lon, Myo Myint Naing, Tet Toe Tun, Nay Lin Yin Maung, Gawrie N. L. Galappaththy, Krongthong Thimarsan, Tin Tin Wai, Lwin Ni Ni Thaung
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​s12889-015-2241-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

Conceived and designed by TH, KTW, TO, MMN, GG, KT; detailed work plan in the fields and field data collection and management by NS, TM, SM, KNL, TTH, NLYM; performed data analysis by KTW, TO, TTW, LNNT; manuscript writing by TH, KTW and TO. All authors have reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

Authors’ information

Not applicable.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.



Areas with dynamic population movements are likely to be associated with higher levels of drug-resistant malaria. Myanmar Artemisinin Resistance Containment (MARC) Project has been launching since 2012. One of its components includes enhancing strategic approaches for mobile/migrant populations. We aimed to ascertain the estimated population of mobile migrant workers and their families in terms of stability in work setting in townships classified as tier II (areas with significant inflows of people from areas with credible evidence of artemisinin resistance) for Artemisinin resistance; to identify knowledge, attitudes and practices related to prevention and control of malaria and to recommend cost-effective strategies in planning for prevention and control of malaria.


A prospective cross-sectional study conducted between June to December 2013 that covered 1,899 migrant groups from 16 tier II townships of Bago Region, and Kayin and Kayah States. Trained data collectors used a pre-tested and subsequently modified questionnaire and interviewed 2,381 respondents. Data of migrant groups were analyzed and compared by category depending upon the stability of their work setting.


The estimated population of the 1,899 migrant groups categorized into three on the nature of their work setting was 56,030. Bago region was the commonest reported source of origin of migrant groups as well as their transit. Malaria volunteers were mostly within the reach of category 1 migrant groups (43/66, 65.2 %). Less stable migrant groups in category 3 had limited access to malaria information (14.7 %) and malaria care providers (22.1 %), low level of awareness and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (46.6 and 38.8 %). Also, they had poor knowledge on malaria prevention on confirming suspected malaria and on using artemisinin combined therapy (ACT). Within two weeks prior to the survey, only 16.5 % of respondents in all categories combined reported acute undifferentiated fever.

Discussion and Conclusions

Mobility dynamics of migrant groups was complex and increased their vulnerability to malaria. This phenomenon was accentuated in less stable areas. Even though migrant workers were familiar with rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, ACT still needed wide recognition to improve practices supportive of MARC including the use of appropriate personal protection. High mobility calls for re-designation of tier II townships to optimize ACT resistance containment.
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