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01.11.2018 | Genitourinary Cancers (DP Petrylak and JW Kim, Section Editors) | Ausgabe 11/2018

Current Oncology Reports 11/2018

Molecular Mechanisms of Cisplatin Chemoresistance and Its Circumventing in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

Zeitschrift:
Current Oncology Reports > Ausgabe 11/2018
Autoren:
Silvia Schmidtova, Katarina Kalavska, Lucia Kucerova
Wichtige Hinweise
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Genitourinary Cancers

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) represent the most common solid tumors affecting young men. Majority of TGCTs respond well to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. However, patients with refractory disease have limited treatment modalities associated with poor prognosis. Here, we discuss the main molecular mechanisms associated with acquired cisplatin resistance in TGCTs and how their understanding might help in the development of new approaches to tackle this clinically relevant problem. We also discuss recent data on the strategies of circumventing the cisplatin resistance from different tumor types potentially efficient also in TGCTs.

Recent Findings

Recent data regarding deregulation of various signaling pathways as well as genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in cisplatin-resistant TGCTs have contributed to understanding of the mechanisms related to the resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in these tumors. Understanding of these mechanisms enabled explaining why majority but not all TGCTs patients are curable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Moreover, it could lead to the development of more effective treatment of refractory TGCTs and potentially other solid tumors resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy.

Summary

This review provides additional insights into mechanisms associated with cisplatin resistance in TGCTs, which is a complex phenomenon, and there is a need for novel modalities to overcome it.

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