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01.12.2019 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

BMC Anesthesiology 1/2019

Multimodal analgesia with ropivacaine wound infiltration and intravenous flurbiprofen axetil provides enhanced analgesic effects after radical thyroidectomy: a randomized controlled trial

BMC Anesthesiology > Ausgabe 1/2019
Xiaoxi Li, Ling Yu, Jiaonan Yang, Hongyu Tan
Wichtige Hinweise
A correction to this article is available online at https://​doi.​org/​10.​1186/​s12871-019-0871-y.

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Thyroidectomy is a common procedure that causes mild trauma. Nevertheless, postoperative pain remains a major challenge in patient care. Multimodal analgesia comprising a combination of analgesics and analgesic techniques has become increasingly popular for the control of postoperative pain. The present study tested the hypothesis that multimodal analgesia with combined ropivacaine wound infiltration and intravenous flurbiprofen axetil after radical thyroidectomy provided better analgesia than a single dosage of tramadol.


This randomized controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Forty-four patients (age, 18–75 years; American Society of Anesthesiologists status I or II; BMI < 32 kg/m2) scheduled for radical thyroidectomy were randomly assigned to a multimodal analgesia group (Group M) or a control group (Group C) by random numbers assignments, and 40 patients completed the study. All participants and the nurse in charge of follow-up observations were blinded to group assignment. Anesthesia was induced with sufentanil, propofol, and cisatracurium. After tracheal intubation, Group M received pre-incision wound infiltration with 5 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine mixed with epinephrine at 1:200,000 (5 μg/ml); Group C received no wound infiltration. Anesthesia was maintained with target-controlled infusion of propofol, remifentanil, sevoflurane, and intermittent cisatracurium. Twenty minutes before the end of surgery, Group M received 100 mg flurbiprofen axetil while Group C received 100 mg tramadol. Postoperative pain was evaluated with the numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score. Remifentanil consumption, heart rate, and noninvasive blood pressure were recorded intraoperatively. Adverse events were documented. The primary outcome was analgesic effect according to NRS scores.


NRS scores at rest were significantly lower in Group M than in Group C before discharge from the postoperative anesthetic care unit (P = 0.003) and at 2 (P = 0.008), 4 (P = 0.020), and 8 h (P = 0.016) postoperatively. Group M also had significantly lower NRS scores during coughing/swallowing at 5 min after extubation (P = 0.017), before discharge from the postoperative anesthetic care unit (P = 0.001), and at 2 (P = 0.002) and 4 h (P = 0.013) postoperatively. Compared with Group C, NRS scores were significantly lower throughout the first 24 h postoperatively in Group M at rest (P = 0.008) and during coughing/swallowing (P = 0.003). No serious adverse events were observed in either group.


Multimodal analgesia with ropivacaine wound infiltration and intravenous flurbiprofen axetil provided better analgesia than tramadol after radical thyroidectomy.

Trial registration

Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (registration number # ChiCTR1800020290​; date of registration: 22/12/2018).
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