The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1476-9255-9-14) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
DAN, VSC, MDT, and KLB each performed selected analyses, each contributed at some level to the study design, and each help to facilitate writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (HV-68) is an efficient pathogen, capable of infecting and establishing lifelong latency in rodents. While many studies have demonstrated the ability of this viral infection to modulate immune responses, a unifying mechanism for HV-68-induced subversion of a protective host response remains elusive. We questioned whether infection with HV-68 could expand a population of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) as one mechanism for altering protective immunity.
Mice were infected with HV-68, with viral latency being established in these animals. At varying times post-infection, cells were isolated for detection of viral genomes, phenotyping of myeloid cell populations, and ex vivo analysis of suppressor activity of myeloid cells.
CD11b + Gr-1+ myeloid cells accumulated in the spleens, but not the bone marrow, of HV-68 infected mice. These cells were predominantly Gr-1+ Ly-6 G+, and could be found to contain viral genomes. Increased levels of serum S100A8/A9 produced during viral infection were consistent with the expansion of these CD11b + Gr-1+ myeloid cells. Despite their expansion, these cells exhibited no increased arginase 1 or iNOS activity, and did not have the ability to suppress anti-CD3 antibody activated T lymphocyte responses.
We concluded that HV-68 infection was capable of expanding a population of myeloid cells which were phenotypically similar to MDSC. However these cells were not sufficiently activated during the establishment of viral latency to actively suppress T cell responses.
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Alber DG, Vallance P, Powell KL: Enhanced atherogenesis is not an obligatory response to systemic herpesvirus infection in the apoE-deficient mouse: comparison of murine gamma-herpesvirus-68 and herpes simplex virus-1. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002, 22: 793-798. 10.1161/01.ATV.0000016046.94521.68. CrossRefPubMed
- Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 expands, but does not activate, CD11b+ gr-1+ splenocytes in vivo
Daniel A Nelson
Vinita S Chauhan
Melanie D Tolbert
Kenneth L Bost
- BioMed Central
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