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01.11.2013 | Original Article | Ausgabe 11/2013

Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy 11/2013

Myeloid-derived suppressor cell function is reduced by Withaferin A, a potent and abundant component of Withania somnifera root extract

Zeitschrift:
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy > Ausgabe 11/2013
Autoren:
Pratima Sinha, Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1007/​s00262-013-1470-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Abstract

Myeloid cells play a crucial role in tumor progression. The most common tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells are myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). These cells promote tumor growth by their inherent immune suppressive activity which is enhanced by their cross-talk. The root extract of the plant Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) (WRE) has been reported to reduce tumor growth. HPLC analysis identified Withaferin A (WA) as the most abundant constituent of WRE and led us to determine whether the anti-tumor effects of WRE and WA involve modulating MDSC and TAM activity. A prominent effect of MDSC is their production of IL-10 which increases upon cross-talk with macrophages, thus polarizing immunity to a pro-tumor type 2 phenotype. In vitro treatment with WA decreased MDSC production of IL-10 and prevented additional MDSC production of IL-10 generated by MDSC–macrophage cross-talk. Macrophage secretion of IL-6 and TNFα, cytokines that increase MDSC accumulation and function, was also reduced by in vitro treatment with WA. Much of the T-cell suppressive activity of MDSC is due to MDSC production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and WA significantly reduced MDSC production of ROS through a STAT3-dependent mechanism. In vivo treatment of tumor-bearing mice with WA decreased tumor weight, reduced the quantity of granulocytic MDSC, and reduced the ability of MDSC to suppress antigen-driven activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Thus, adjunctive treatment with WA reduced myeloid cell-mediated immune suppression, polarized immunity toward a tumor-rejecting type 1 phenotype, and may facilitate the development of anti-tumor immunity.

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Zusatzmaterial
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 424 kb)
262_2013_1470_MOESM1_ESM.pdf
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