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01.12.2019 | Review | Ausgabe 1/2019 Open Access

Cardiovascular Ultrasound 1/2019

Myocardial tissue characterisation using echocardiographic deformation imaging

Cardiovascular Ultrasound > Ausgabe 1/2019
Mohammed A. Moharram, Regis R. Lamberts, Gillian Whalley, Michael J. A. Williams, Sean Coffey
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Myocardial pathology results in significant morbidity and mortality, whether due to primary cardiomyopathic processes or secondary to other conditions such as ischemic heart disease. Cardiac imaging techniques characterise the underlying tissue directly, by assessing a signal from the tissue itself, or indirectly, by inferring tissue characteristics from global or regional function. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most investigated imaging modality for tissue characterisation, but, due to its accessibility, advanced echocardiography represents an attractive alternative. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is a reproducible technique used to assess myocardial deformation at both segmental and global levels. Since distinct myocardial pathologies affect deformation differently, information about the underlying tissue can be inferred by STE. In this review, the current available studies correlating STE deformation parameters with underlying tissue characteristics in humans are examined, with separate emphasis on global and segmental analysis. The current knowledge is placed in the context of integrated backscatter and the future of echocardiographic based tissue characterisation is discussed. The use of these imaging techniques to more precisely phenotype myocardial pathology more precisely will allow the design of translational cardiac research studies and, potentially, tailored management strategies.
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