Skip to main content
main-content

2020 | Natürliche Kontrazeption | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

3. Physiologische Grundlagen der Natürlichen Familienplanung

verfasst von: Elisabeth Raith-Paula, Petra Frank-Herrmann

Erschienen in: Natürliche Familienplanung heute

Verlag: Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Zusammenfassung

Die Natürliche Familienplanung ist angewandte Physiologie. Fertiles Fenster und Zyklusphasen sind ebenso wie die beobachtbaren Zyklusparameter hormonell determiniert. Die physiologischen Determinanten zu Lebenszeit der Eizelle, Befruchtungsfähigkeit der Spermien, ihre Abhängigkeit von der Ultrastruktur des Zervixschleims, die relevanten Hormonachsen und die periphere Wirkung von Östrogen und Progesteron werden nach aktuellem Stand dargestellt.
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Abraham GE, Odell WD, Swerdloff RS, Hopper K (1972) Simultaneous radioimmunoassay of plasma FSH, LH, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and estradiol-17 beta during the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34:312–318 PubMedCrossRef Abraham GE, Odell WD, Swerdloff RS, Hopper K (1972) Simultaneous radioimmunoassay of plasma FSH, LH, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and estradiol-17 beta during the menstrual cycle. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 34:312–318 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Alliende ME (2002) Mean versus individual hormonal profiles in the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 78:90–95 PubMedCrossRef Alliende ME (2002) Mean versus individual hormonal profiles in the menstrual cycle. Fertil Steril 78:90–95 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Austin CR (1970) Ageing and reproduction: post-ovulatory deterioration of the egg. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 12:39–53 PubMed Austin CR (1970) Ageing and reproduction: post-ovulatory deterioration of the egg. J Reprod Fertil Suppl 12:39–53 PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Baerwald AR, Adams GP, Pierson RA (2003) Characterization of ovarian follicular wave dynamics in women. Biol Reprod 69:1023–1031 PubMedCrossRef Baerwald AR, Adams GP, Pierson RA (2003) Characterization of ovarian follicular wave dynamics in women. Biol Reprod 69:1023–1031 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Beller F, Vogler H (1962) Die Bestimmung des Ovulationstermins bzw. der präovulatorischen Phase unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der physikalischen Eigenschaften des Zervixschleims. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 158:58–79 Beller F, Vogler H (1962) Die Bestimmung des Ovulationstermins bzw. der präovulatorischen Phase unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der physikalischen Eigenschaften des Zervixschleims. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 158:58–79
Zurück zum Zitat Belonoschkin B (1949) Zeugung beim Menschen im Lichte der Spermatozoenlehre. Sjoberg Forlag, Stockholm Belonoschkin B (1949) Zeugung beim Menschen im Lichte der Spermatozoenlehre. Sjoberg Forlag, Stockholm
Zurück zum Zitat Bigelow JL, Dunson DB, Stanford JB, Ecochard R, Gnoth C, Colombo B (2004) Mucus observations in the fertile window: a better predictor of conception than timing of intercourse. Hum Reprod 19:889–892 PubMedCrossRef Bigelow JL, Dunson DB, Stanford JB, Ecochard R, Gnoth C, Colombo B (2004) Mucus observations in the fertile window: a better predictor of conception than timing of intercourse. Hum Reprod 19:889–892 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Blackwell LF, Vigil P, Gross B, D’Arcangues C, Cooke DG, Brown JB (2012) Monitoring of ovarian activity by measurement of urinary excretion rates of estroneglucuronide and pregnanediolglucuronide using the ovarian monitor, part II: reliability of home testing. Hum Reprod 27:550–557 PubMedCrossRef Blackwell LF, Vigil P, Gross B, D’Arcangues C, Cooke DG, Brown JB (2012) Monitoring of ovarian activity by measurement of urinary excretion rates of estroneglucuronide and pregnanediolglucuronide using the ovarian monitor, part II: reliability of home testing. Hum Reprod 27:550–557 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Blackwell LF, Vigil P, Alliende ME, Brown S, Festin M, Cooke DG (2016) Monitoring of ovarian activity by measurement of urinary excretion rates using the ovarian monitor, part IV: The relationship of the pregnanediol glucuronide threshold to basal body temperature and cervical mucus as markers for the beginning of the postovulatory infertile period. Hum Reprod 31:445–453 PubMed Blackwell LF, Vigil P, Alliende ME, Brown S, Festin M, Cooke DG (2016) Monitoring of ovarian activity by measurement of urinary excretion rates using the ovarian monitor, part IV: The relationship of the pregnanediol glucuronide threshold to basal body temperature and cervical mucus as markers for the beginning of the postovulatory infertile period. Hum Reprod 31:445–453 PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Blandau RJ, Moghissi KS (1973) The biology of the cervix. University of Chicago Press, Chicago Blandau RJ, Moghissi KS (1973) The biology of the cervix. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
Zurück zum Zitat Bremme M, Freundl G, Baur S, Döring G (1991) Natürliche Familienplanung: Neue Technologien und Studien zur Methode. BMJFG Bremme M, Freundl G, Baur S, Döring G (1991) Natürliche Familienplanung: Neue Technologien und Studien zur Methode. BMJFG
Zurück zum Zitat Burger HG (1981) Neuroendocrine control of human ovulation. Int J Fertil 26:153–160 PubMed Burger HG (1981) Neuroendocrine control of human ovulation. Int J Fertil 26:153–160 PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Chrétien FC, Gernigon C, David G, Psychoyos A (1973) The ultrastructure of human cervical mucus under scanning electron microscopy. Fertil Steril 24:746–757 PubMedCrossRef Chrétien FC, Gernigon C, David G, Psychoyos A (1973) The ultrastructure of human cervical mucus under scanning electron microscopy. Fertil Steril 24:746–757 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Colombo B, Masarotto G (2000) Daily fecundability: first results from a new data base. Demographic Research 3/5: Internet edition Colombo B, Masarotto G (2000) Daily fecundability: first results from a new data base. Demographic Research 3/5: Internet edition
Zurück zum Zitat Cortesi S, Rigoni G, Zen F, Sposetti R (1981) Correlation of plasma gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids pattern with symptomatic changes in cervical mucus during the menstrual cycle in normal cycling women. Contraception 23:629–641 PubMedCrossRef Cortesi S, Rigoni G, Zen F, Sposetti R (1981) Correlation of plasma gonadotrophins and ovarian steroids pattern with symptomatic changes in cervical mucus during the menstrual cycle in normal cycling women. Contraception 23:629–641 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Davajan V, Nakamura R, Kharma K (1970) Spermatozoon transport in cervical mucus. Obstet Gynecol Surv 25:1–43 CrossRef Davajan V, Nakamura R, Kharma K (1970) Spermatozoon transport in cervical mucus. Obstet Gynecol Surv 25:1–43 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Davis M, Fugo N (1948) The cause of physiologic basal body temperature changes in women. J Clin Endocrinol 8:550 CrossRef Davis M, Fugo N (1948) The cause of physiologic basal body temperature changes in women. J Clin Endocrinol 8:550 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat De-Mouzon J, Testart J, Lefevre B, Pouly JL, Frydman R (1984) Time relationships between basal body temperature and ovulation or plasma progestins. Fertil Steril 41:254–259 PubMedCrossRef De-Mouzon J, Testart J, Lefevre B, Pouly JL, Frydman R (1984) Time relationships between basal body temperature and ovulation or plasma progestins. Fertil Steril 41:254–259 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Dhillo WS, Chaudhri OB, Thompson EL, Murphy KG, Patterson M, Ramachandran R, Nijher GK, Amber V, Kokkinos A, Donaldson M, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR (2007) Kisspeptin-54 stimulates gonadotropin release most potently during the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle in women. J Clin Endocr Metab 92:3958–3966 PubMedCrossRef Dhillo WS, Chaudhri OB, Thompson EL, Murphy KG, Patterson M, Ramachandran R, Nijher GK, Amber V, Kokkinos A, Donaldson M, Ghatei MA, Bloom SR (2007) Kisspeptin-54 stimulates gonadotropin release most potently during the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle in women. J Clin Endocr Metab 92:3958–3966 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Direito A, Bailly S, Mariane A, Ecochard R (2013) Relationship between the luteinizing hormone surge and other characteristics of the menstrual cycle in normally ovulating women. Fertil Steril 99:279–285 PubMedCrossRef Direito A, Bailly S, Mariane A, Ecochard R (2013) Relationship between the luteinizing hormone surge and other characteristics of the menstrual cycle in normally ovulating women. Fertil Steril 99:279–285 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ecochard R, Gougeon A (2000) Side of ovulation and cycle characteristics in normally fertile women. Hum Reprod 15:752–755 PubMedCrossRef Ecochard R, Gougeon A (2000) Side of ovulation and cycle characteristics in normally fertile women. Hum Reprod 15:752–755 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Eggert-Kruse W, Kohler A, Rohr G, Runnebaum B (1993) The pH as an important determinant of sperm-mucus interaction. Fertil Steril 59:617–628 PubMedCrossRef Eggert-Kruse W, Kohler A, Rohr G, Runnebaum B (1993) The pH as an important determinant of sperm-mucus interaction. Fertil Steril 59:617–628 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Fabres C, Zegers-Hochschild F, Altieri E, Llados C (1993) Validation of the dual analyte assay of the oestrone: pregnanediol ratio in monitoring ovarian function. Hum Reprod 8:208–210 PubMedCrossRef Fabres C, Zegers-Hochschild F, Altieri E, Llados C (1993) Validation of the dual analyte assay of the oestrone: pregnanediol ratio in monitoring ovarian function. Hum Reprod 8:208–210 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Faccioli G (1986) Numerical and morphological analysis of human endocervical cells in relation to peripheral estrogen levels. Acta Eur Fertil 17:333–339 PubMed Faccioli G (1986) Numerical and morphological analysis of human endocervical cells in relation to peripheral estrogen levels. Acta Eur Fertil 17:333–339 PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Fredricks CM, Azzam MEA, Hafez ESE (1976) In vitro response of rabbit utero ovarian ligament to catecholamines. Fertil Steril 27:957 CrossRef Fredricks CM, Azzam MEA, Hafez ESE (1976) In vitro response of rabbit utero ovarian ligament to catecholamines. Fertil Steril 27:957 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Freundl G (1988) Zervikalschleim, Spermatozoentransport und Insemination. In: Schneider H, Lauritzen C, Nieschlag E (Hrsg) Grundlagen und Klinik der menschlichen Fortpflanzung. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin Freundl G (1988) Zervikalschleim, Spermatozoentransport und Insemination. In: Schneider H, Lauritzen C, Nieschlag E (Hrsg) Grundlagen und Klinik der menschlichen Fortpflanzung. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin
Zurück zum Zitat Gaton E, Zejdel L, Bernstein D, Glezerman M, Czernobilsky B, Insler V (1982) The effect of estrogen and gestagen on the mucus production of human endocervical cells: a histochemical study. Fertil Steril 38:580–585 PubMedCrossRef Gaton E, Zejdel L, Bernstein D, Glezerman M, Czernobilsky B, Insler V (1982) The effect of estrogen and gestagen on the mucus production of human endocervical cells: a histochemical study. Fertil Steril 38:580–585 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Georgiades E, Schneider W (1972) Über die Nachweisbarkeitsdauer von Spermien im Zervixsekret der Frau nach einmaliger Kohabitation. Zentralbl Gynakol 94:1553–1558 PubMed Georgiades E, Schneider W (1972) Über die Nachweisbarkeitsdauer von Spermien im Zervixsekret der Frau nach einmaliger Kohabitation. Zentralbl Gynakol 94:1553–1558 PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Hafez ESE (1979) Scanning electron microscopy of cervical mucus and ovulation. In: Hafez ESE (Hrsg) Human Ovulation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, S 327–338 Hafez ESE (1979) Scanning electron microscopy of cervical mucus and ovulation. In: Hafez ESE (Hrsg) Human Ovulation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, S 327–338
Zurück zum Zitat Hanson FW, Overstreet JW (1981) The interaction of human spermatozoa with cervical mucus in vivo. Am J Obstet Gynecol 140:173–178 PubMedCrossRef Hanson FW, Overstreet JW (1981) The interaction of human spermatozoa with cervical mucus in vivo. Am J Obstet Gynecol 140:173–178 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hartman CG (1962) Science and the safe period. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD Hartman CG (1962) Science and the safe period. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, MD
Zurück zum Zitat Hillier S (1994) Current concepts of the roles of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in folliculogenesis. Hum Reprod 9:188–191 PubMedCrossRef Hillier S (1994) Current concepts of the roles of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in folliculogenesis. Hum Reprod 9:188–191 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Höglund A, Odeblad E (1977) Sperm penetration in cervical mucus, a biophysical and group-theoretical approach. In: Insler V, Bettendorf G (Hrsg) The uterine cervix in reproduction. Thieme, Stuttgart Höglund A, Odeblad E (1977) Sperm penetration in cervical mucus, a biophysical and group-theoretical approach. In: Insler V, Bettendorf G (Hrsg) The uterine cervix in reproduction. Thieme, Stuttgart
Zurück zum Zitat Insler V, Bernstein D, Glezerman M (1977) Diagnosis and classification of the cervical factor of infertility. In: Insler V, Bettendorf G (Hrsg) The Uterine Cervix in Reproduction. Thieme, Stuttgart Insler V, Bernstein D, Glezerman M (1977) Diagnosis and classification of the cervical factor of infertility. In: Insler V, Bettendorf G (Hrsg) The Uterine Cervix in Reproduction. Thieme, Stuttgart
Zurück zum Zitat Insler V, Glezerman M, Zeidel L, Bernstein D, Misgav N (1980) Sperm storage in the human cervix: a quantitative study. Fertil Steril 33:288–293 PubMedCrossRef Insler V, Glezerman M, Zeidel L, Bernstein D, Misgav N (1980) Sperm storage in the human cervix: a quantitative study. Fertil Steril 33:288–293 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kähn W (1990) Führen beim Rind Inseminationen nach der Ovulation zur Konzeption? Reprod Dom Anim 25:111 Kähn W (1990) Führen beim Rind Inseminationen nach der Ovulation zur Konzeption? Reprod Dom Anim 25:111
Zurück zum Zitat Kellerman AS, Weed JC (1970) Sperm motility and survival in relation to glucose concentration: an in vitro study. Fertil Steril 21:802–805 PubMedCrossRef Kellerman AS, Weed JC (1970) Sperm motility and survival in relation to glucose concentration: an in vitro study. Fertil Steril 21:802–805 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kissler S, Siebzehnruebl E, Kohl J, Mueller A, Hamscho N, Gaetje R, Ahr A, Rody A, Kaufmann M (2004) Uterine contractility and directed sperm transport assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG) and intrauterine pressure (IUP) measurement. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 83:369–374 PubMedCrossRef Kissler S, Siebzehnruebl E, Kohl J, Mueller A, Hamscho N, Gaetje R, Ahr A, Rody A, Kaufmann M (2004) Uterine contractility and directed sperm transport assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy (HSSG) and intrauterine pressure (IUP) measurement. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 83:369–374 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Krotz S, McKenzie LJ, Cisneros P, Buster J, Amato P, Carson S (2005) Prevalence of premature urinary luteinizing hormone surges in women with regular menstrual cycles and its effect on implantation of frozen-thawed embryos. Fertil Steril 83:1742–1744 PubMedCrossRef Krotz S, McKenzie LJ, Cisneros P, Buster J, Amato P, Carson S (2005) Prevalence of premature urinary luteinizing hormone surges in women with regular menstrual cycles and its effect on implantation of frozen-thawed embryos. Fertil Steril 83:1742–1744 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kunz G, Leyendecker G (2002) Uterine peristaltic activity during the menstrual cycle: characterization, regulation, function and dysfunction. Reprod Biomed Online 4(Suppl 3):5–9 PubMedCrossRef Kunz G, Leyendecker G (2002) Uterine peristaltic activity during the menstrual cycle: characterization, regulation, function and dysfunction. Reprod Biomed Online 4(Suppl 3):5–9 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kunz G, Beil D, Deininger H, Wildt L, Leyendecker G (1996) The dynamics of rapid sperm transport through the female genital tract: evidence from vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis and hysterosalpingoscintigraphy. Hum Reprod 11(3):627–632 PubMedCrossRef Kunz G, Beil D, Deininger H, Wildt L, Leyendecker G (1996) The dynamics of rapid sperm transport through the female genital tract: evidence from vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis and hysterosalpingoscintigraphy. Hum Reprod 11(3):627–632 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Leidenberger F, Strowitzki T, Ortmann O (2014) Klinische Endokrinologie für Frauenärzte. Springer, Heidelberg Leidenberger F, Strowitzki T, Ortmann O (2014) Klinische Endokrinologie für Frauenärzte. Springer, Heidelberg
Zurück zum Zitat Leyendecker G, Hinckers K, Nocke W, Plotz EJ (1975) Hypophysäre Gonadotropine und ovarielle Steroide im Serum während des normalen menstruellen Cyclus und bei Corpus-luteum-Insuffizienz. Arch Gynakol 218:47–64 PubMedCrossRef Leyendecker G, Hinckers K, Nocke W, Plotz EJ (1975) Hypophysäre Gonadotropine und ovarielle Steroide im Serum während des normalen menstruellen Cyclus und bei Corpus-luteum-Insuffizienz. Arch Gynakol 218:47–64 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat McGee EA, Hsueh AJ (2000) Initial and cyclic recruitment of ovarian follicles. Endocr Rev 21:200–214 PubMed McGee EA, Hsueh AJ (2000) Initial and cyclic recruitment of ovarian follicles. Endocr Rev 21:200–214 PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Menárguez M, Pastor LM, Odeblad E (2003) Morphological characterization of different human cervical mucus types using light and scanning electron microscopy. Hum Reprod 18:1782–1789 PubMedCrossRef Menárguez M, Pastor LM, Odeblad E (2003) Morphological characterization of different human cervical mucus types using light and scanning electron microscopy. Hum Reprod 18:1782–1789 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Mikolajczyk RT, Stanford JB, Ecochard R (2008) Multilevel model to assess sources of variation in follicular growth close to the time of ovulation in women with normal fertility: a multicenter observational study. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 6:61–68 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef Mikolajczyk RT, Stanford JB, Ecochard R (2008) Multilevel model to assess sources of variation in follicular growth close to the time of ovulation in women with normal fertility: a multicenter observational study. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 6:61–68 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Moghissi KS (1973) Sperm migration through the human cervix. In: Elstein M (Hrsg) Cervical Mucus and Human Reproduction. Scriptor, Copenhagen, S 128–152 Moghissi KS (1973) Sperm migration through the human cervix. In: Elstein M (Hrsg) Cervical Mucus and Human Reproduction. Scriptor, Copenhagen, S 128–152
Zurück zum Zitat Moghissi KS (1980) Prediction and detection of ovulation. Fertil Steril 34:98 Moghissi KS (1980) Prediction and detection of ovulation. Fertil Steril 34:98
Zurück zum Zitat Nulsen J, Wheeler C, Ausmanas M, Blasco L (1987) Cervical mucus changes in relationship to urinary luteinizing hormone. Fertil Steril 48:783–786 PubMedCrossRef Nulsen J, Wheeler C, Ausmanas M, Blasco L (1987) Cervical mucus changes in relationship to urinary luteinizing hormone. Fertil Steril 48:783–786 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat O’Herlihy C (1980) Preovulatory follicular size: a comparison of ultrasound and laparoscopic measurements. Fertil Steril 34:24–26 PubMedCrossRef O’Herlihy C (1980) Preovulatory follicular size: a comparison of ultrasound and laparoscopic measurements. Fertil Steril 34:24–26 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Odeblad E (1968) The functional structure of human cervical mucus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 47:57 PubMedCrossRef Odeblad E (1968) The functional structure of human cervical mucus. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 47:57 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Palmer DJ (1939) Action thermique des hormones sexuelles chez la femme. CR Soz Diol 130:895–896 Palmer DJ (1939) Action thermique des hormones sexuelles chez la femme. CR Soz Diol 130:895–896
Zurück zum Zitat Pommerenke WT (1953) Phenomena correlated with ovulation as guides to the appraisal of the so-called save period. J Obstet Gynaecol Br 60:519–528 CrossRef Pommerenke WT (1953) Phenomena correlated with ovulation as guides to the appraisal of the so-called save period. J Obstet Gynaecol Br 60:519–528 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Prins G, Zahnefeld LJD, Schumacher GFB (1979) Functional biochemistry of cervical mucus. In: Hafez ESE (Hrsg) Human ovulation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, S. 327–338 Prins G, Zahnefeld LJD, Schumacher GFB (1979) Functional biochemistry of cervical mucus. In: Hafez ESE (Hrsg) Human ovulation. Elsevier, Amsterdam, S. 327–338
Zurück zum Zitat Raith E (1982) Die modernen Methoden der natürlichen Familienplanung. Med Dissertation, Universität München Raith E (1982) Die modernen Methoden der natürlichen Familienplanung. Med Dissertation, Universität München
Zurück zum Zitat Rauscher H (1959) Zur Dauer der Befruchtungsfähigkeit der menschlichen Eizelle. Proceedings of the Third World Congress on Fertility and Sterility, Amsterdam Rauscher H (1959) Zur Dauer der Befruchtungsfähigkeit der menschlichen Eizelle. Proceedings of the Third World Congress on Fertility and Sterility, Amsterdam
Zurück zum Zitat Reeve L, Ledger WL, Pacey AA (2003) Does the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) adhesion sequence play a role in mediating sperm interaction with the human endosalpinx? Hum Reprod 18:1461–1468 PubMedCrossRef Reeve L, Ledger WL, Pacey AA (2003) Does the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) adhesion sequence play a role in mediating sperm interaction with the human endosalpinx? Hum Reprod 18:1461–1468 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Roos J, Johnson S, Weddell S, Godehardt E, Schiffner J, Freundl G, Gnoth C (2015) Monitoring the menstrual cycle: comparison of urinary and serum reproductive hormones referenced to true ovulation. Eur J of Contracept Reprod Health Care 20:438–450 CrossRef Roos J, Johnson S, Weddell S, Godehardt E, Schiffner J, Freundl G, Gnoth C (2015) Monitoring the menstrual cycle: comparison of urinary and serum reproductive hormones referenced to true ovulation. Eur J of Contracept Reprod Health Care 20:438–450 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Rossmanith WG (1991) Zirkadiane und ultradiane Rhythmen in der Gonadotropinsekretion: Regulation durch ovarielle Steroide. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 51:585 PubMedCrossRef Rossmanith WG (1991) Zirkadiane und ultradiane Rhythmen in der Gonadotropinsekretion: Regulation durch ovarielle Steroide. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 51:585 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Royston JP (1982) Basal body temperature, ovulation and the risk of conception, with special reference to the lifetimes of sperm and egg. Biometrics 38:397–406 PubMedCrossRef Royston JP (1982) Basal body temperature, ovulation and the risk of conception, with special reference to the lifetimes of sperm and egg. Biometrics 38:397–406 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Simpson JL (1995) Pregnancy and the timing of intercourse. N Engl J Med 333:1563–1565 (editorial; comment) PubMedCrossRef Simpson JL (1995) Pregnancy and the timing of intercourse. N Engl J Med 333:1563–1565 (editorial; comment) PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Simpson JL, Gray RH, Queenan JT, Mena P, Perez A, Kambic RT et al (1995) Timing of intercourse [letter]. Hum Reprod 10:2176–2177 PubMedCrossRef Simpson JL, Gray RH, Queenan JT, Mena P, Perez A, Kambic RT et al (1995) Timing of intercourse [letter]. Hum Reprod 10:2176–2177 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Smith JT, Clifton DK, Steiner RA (2006) Regulation of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis by kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling. Reproduction 131:623–630 PubMedCrossRef Smith JT, Clifton DK, Steiner RA (2006) Regulation of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis by kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling. Reproduction 131:623–630 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Stanford JB, Smith KR, Dunson DB (2003) Vulvar mucus observations and the probability of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 101:1285–1293 PubMed Stanford JB, Smith KR, Dunson DB (2003) Vulvar mucus observations and the probability of pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 101:1285–1293 PubMed
Zurück zum Zitat Suarez SS, Pacey AA (2006) Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract. Hum Reprod Update 12:23 PubMedCrossRef Suarez SS, Pacey AA (2006) Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract. Hum Reprod Update 12:23 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat te Velde ER, Pearson PL (2002) The variability of female reproductive ageing. Hum Reprod Update 8:141–154 CrossRef te Velde ER, Pearson PL (2002) The variability of female reproductive ageing. Hum Reprod Update 8:141–154 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Wildt L, Kissler S, Licht P, Becker W (1998) Sperm transport in the human female genital tract and its modulation by oxytocin as assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, hysterotonography, electrohysterography and doppler sonography. Hum Reprod Update 4:655–666 PubMedCrossRef Wildt L, Kissler S, Licht P, Becker W (1998) Sperm transport in the human female genital tract and its modulation by oxytocin as assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, hysterotonography, electrohysterography and doppler sonography. Hum Reprod Update 4:655–666 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat World Health Organization (1980) Temporal relationships between ovulation und defined changes in the concentration of plasma estradiol-17ß, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone. I. probit analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138:383–390 CrossRef World Health Organization (1980) Temporal relationships between ovulation und defined changes in the concentration of plasma estradiol-17ß, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone. I. probit analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 138:383–390 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat World Health Organization (1981) Temporal relationship between ovulation and defined changes in the concentration of plasma estradiol-17ß, luteinizing hormone and progesterone. II. Histologic dating. Am J Obstet Gynecol 139:886–895 CrossRef World Health Organization (1981) Temporal relationship between ovulation and defined changes in the concentration of plasma estradiol-17ß, luteinizing hormone and progesterone. II. Histologic dating. Am J Obstet Gynecol 139:886–895 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Wunder DM, Bersinger NA, Yared M, Kretschmer R, Birkhäuser MH (2008) Statistically significant changes of antimüllerian hormone and inhibin levels during the physiologic menstrual cycle in reproductive age women. Fertil Steril 89:927–933 PubMedCrossRef Wunder DM, Bersinger NA, Yared M, Kretschmer R, Birkhäuser MH (2008) Statistically significant changes of antimüllerian hormone and inhibin levels during the physiologic menstrual cycle in reproductive age women. Fertil Steril 89:927–933 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Yussman TM (1970) Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and of plasma progesterone related to ovulation by corpus luteum biopsy. J Clin Endocrinol 30:396–399 CrossRef Yussman TM (1970) Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and of plasma progesterone related to ovulation by corpus luteum biopsy. J Clin Endocrinol 30:396–399 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Zander J, Forbes TR, Von Munstermann AM, Neher R (1958) Delta hoch 4-3-Ketopregnene-20alpha-ol und delta hoch 4-3-Ketopregnene-20beta-ol, two naturally occuring metabolites of progesterone. Isolation, identification, biologic activity and concentration in human tissues. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 18:337–353 PubMedCrossRef Zander J, Forbes TR, Von Munstermann AM, Neher R (1958) Delta hoch 4-3-Ketopregnene-20alpha-ol und delta hoch 4-3-Ketopregnene-20beta-ol, two naturally occuring metabolites of progesterone. Isolation, identification, biologic activity and concentration in human tissues. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 18:337–353 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Zervomanolakis I, Ott HW, Hadziomerovic D, Mattle V, Seeber BE, Virgolini I, Heute D, Kissler S, Leyendecker G, Wildt L (2007) Physiology of upward transport in the human female genital tract. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1101:1–20 PubMedCrossRef Zervomanolakis I, Ott HW, Hadziomerovic D, Mattle V, Seeber BE, Virgolini I, Heute D, Kissler S, Leyendecker G, Wildt L (2007) Physiology of upward transport in the human female genital tract. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1101:1–20 PubMedCrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Zervomanolakis I, Ott HW, Müller J, Seeber BE, Friess SC, Mattle V, Virgolini I, Heute D, Wildt L (2009) Uterine mechanisms of ipsilateral directed spermatozoa transport: evidence for a contribution of the utero-ovarian countercurrent system. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 144(Suppl 1):45–49 CrossRef Zervomanolakis I, Ott HW, Müller J, Seeber BE, Friess SC, Mattle V, Virgolini I, Heute D, Wildt L (2009) Uterine mechanisms of ipsilateral directed spermatozoa transport: evidence for a contribution of the utero-ovarian countercurrent system. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 144(Suppl 1):45–49 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Zinaman M, Drobnis EZ, Morales P, Brazil C, Kiel M, Cross NL, Hanson FW, Overstreet JW (1989) The physiology of sperm recovered from the human cervix: acrosomal status and response to inducers of the acrosome reaction. Biol Reprod 41:797 CrossRef Zinaman M, Drobnis EZ, Morales P, Brazil C, Kiel M, Cross NL, Hanson FW, Overstreet JW (1989) The physiology of sperm recovered from the human cervix: acrosomal status and response to inducers of the acrosome reaction. Biol Reprod 41:797 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Zuspan KJ, Zuspan FP (1974) Thermogenic alterations in the woman. II. Basal body, afternoon, and bedtime temperatures. Am J Obstet Gynecol 120:441–445 PubMedCrossRef Zuspan KJ, Zuspan FP (1974) Thermogenic alterations in the woman. II. Basal body, afternoon, and bedtime temperatures. Am J Obstet Gynecol 120:441–445 PubMedCrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Physiologische Grundlagen der Natürlichen Familienplanung
verfasst von
Elisabeth Raith-Paula
Petra Frank-Herrmann
Copyright-Jahr
2020
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-59311-0_3

Neu im Fachgebiet Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe

Newsletter

Bestellen Sie unseren kostenlosen Newsletter Update Gynäkologie und bleiben Sie gut informiert – ganz bequem per eMail.