The online version of this article (https://doi.org/10.1186/s13052-017-0439-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
In Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs), parent satisfaction and their experiences are fundamental to assess clinical practice and improve the quality of care delivered to infants and parents. Recently, a specific instrument, the EMpowerment of PArents in THe Intensive Care-Neonatology (EMPATHIC-N), has been developed in the Netherlands. This instrument investigated different domains of care in NICUs from a family-centered care perspective. In Italy, no rigorous instruments are available to evaluate parent satisfaction and experiences in NICU with family-centered care. The aim of this study was to translate and validate the EMPATHIC-N instrument into Italian language measuring parent satisfaction.
A psychometric study was conducted in nine Italian NICUs. The hospitals were allocated across Italy: four in the North, four in Central region, one in the South. Parents whose infants were discharged from the Units were enrolled. Parents whose infants died were excluded.
Back-forward translation was conducted. Twelve parents reviewed the instrument to assess the cultural adaptation; none of the items fell below the cut-off of 80% agreement. A total of 186 parents of infants who were discharged from nine NICUs were invited to participate and 162 parents responded and returned the questionnaire (87%). The mean scores of the individual items varied between 4.3 and 5.9. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and all factor loadings were statistically significant with the exception of item ‘Our cultural background was taken into account’. The items related to overall satisfaction showed a higher trend with mean values of 5.8 and 5.9. The Cronbach’s alpha’s (at domain level 0.73-0.92) and corrected item-total scale correlations revealed high reliability estimates.
The Italian EMPATHIC-N showed to be a valid and reliable instrument measuring parent satisfaction in NICUs from a family-centered care perspective. Indeed, it had good psychometric properties, validity, and reliability. Furthermore, this instrument is fundamental for further research and internationally benchmarking.
Latour JM, van Goudoever JB, Hazelzet JA. Parent satisfaction in the pediatric ICU. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2008;55:779–90. CrossRef
Berwick DM. A User’s manual for the IOM’s “quality chasm” report. Health Aff (Millwood). 2002;21:80–90. CrossRef
Committee on hospital care and institute for patient- and family-centered care. Patient- and family-centered care and the pediatrician’s role. Pediatrics. 2012;129:394–404. CrossRef
Conner JM, Nelson EC. Neonatal intensive care: satisfaction measured from a Parent’s perspective. Pediatrics. 1999;103(Suppl E1):336–49. PubMed
Wild D, Grove A, Martin M, Eremenco S, McElroy S, Verjee-Lorenz A, et al. Principles of good practice for the translation and cultural adaptation process for patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measures: report of the ISPOR task force for translation and cultural adaptation. Value Health J. 2005;8:94–104. CrossRef
Steiger JH. Structural model evaluation and modification: an interval estimation approach. Multivar Behav Res. 1990;25:173–80. CrossRef
Joreskog KG, Sörbom D. LISREL8 User’s reference guide. Chicago: Scientific Software International; 1993.
Hu L, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Model Multidiscip J. 1999;6:1–55. CrossRef
Browne MW, Cudek R. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park: Sage. K.A. Bollen & J.S. Long; 1993.
Muthén LK, Muthén BO. Mplus User’s Guide. 6th ed. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén; 1998.
Lynn R. In Italy, north–south differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy. Intelligence. 2010;38:93–100. CrossRef
Peracchi F. Height and Economic Development in Italy 1730-1980. https://www.scribd.com/document/194258875/Franco-Peracchi-Height-and-Economic-Development-in-Italy-1730-1980 Accessed 28 Oct 2016.
Gomez DBCA, Vidal SA, Lima LCS. Brazilian adaptation and validation of the Empowerment of parents in the intensive care-neonatology (EMPATHIC-N) questionnaire. J Pediatr. 2017;93:156–64. CrossRef
Capell J, Dean E, Veenstra G. The relationship between cultural competence and ethnocentrism of health care professionals. J Transcult Nurs Off. 2008;19:121–5. CrossRef
De Bernardo G, Svelto M, Giordano M, Sordino D, Riccitelli M. Supporting parents in taking care of their infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit: a prospective cohort pilot study. Ital J Pediatr. 2017;43:1–11. CrossRef
- Neonatal intensive care parent satisfaction: a multicenter study translating and validating the Italian EMPATHIC-N questionnaire
Jos M. Latour
Italian Empathic-N Study Group
- BioMed Central
Neu im Fachgebiet Pädiatrie
Meistgelesene Bücher aus dem Fachgebiet
e.Med Kampagnen-Visual, Mail Icon II