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01.12.2014 | Research article | Ausgabe 1/2014 Open Access

BMC Medical Research Methodology 1/2014

Network-meta analysis made easy: detection of inconsistency using factorial analysis-of-variance models

BMC Medical Research Methodology > Ausgabe 1/2014
Hans-Peter Piepho
Wichtige Hinweise

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.​1186/​1471-2288-14-61) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Competing interests

The author declares that there are no competing interests.



Network meta-analysis can be used to combine results from several randomized trials involving more than two treatments. Potential inconsistency among different types of trial (designs) differing in the set of treatments tested is a major challenge, and application of procedures for detecting and locating inconsistency in trial networks is a key step in the conduct of such analyses.


Network meta-analysis can be very conveniently performed using factorial analysis-of-variance methods. Inconsistency can be scrutinized by inspecting the design × treatment interaction. This approach is in many ways simpler to implement than the more common approach of using treatment-versus-control contrasts.


We show that standard regression diagnostics available in common linear mixed model packages can be used to detect and locate inconsistency in trial networks. Moreover, a suitable definition of factors and effects allows devising significance tests for inconsistency.


Factorial analysis of variance provides a convenient framework for conducting network meta-analysis, including diagnostic checks for inconsistency.
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