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Diospyros malabarica is a well known flowering plant indigenous to Indian subcontinent which is used in folklore medicine for several purposes. Our study is designed to assess the neuropharmacological and antibacterial efficacy of the ethyl acetate extract of D. malabarica seeds.
The behavioral anxiolytic activities of the extract were assessed by using open field (OFT), hole cross (HCT), elevated plus maze (EPZ), hole board (HBT), light dark test (LDT); and antidepressant activities through forced swimming (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Antimicrobial potential was assessed through disc diffusion method.
In OFT and HCT, the extract treated groups significantly (*p < 0.05) decrease the movement of animals when compared to vehicle-treated group. Higher dose (400 mg/kg b.w.) of extract greatly increased the spending time in open arm of EPZ, which endorses anxiolytic-like behavior of extract. The observed effect may be due to binding of any phytoconstituent with GABAA receptor. HBT and LDT results support the exploratory behavior of mice. The extract significantly decreased the immobility time in FST (20.71% for 200 mg/kg, and 31.59% for 400 mg/kg extract) and TST, which indicates the occupancy of antidepressant-active constituents. Gram negative bacteria were susceptible to extract than Gram positive strains; however the antimicrobial effect is not significant, hence trivial to declare.
Our study demonstrates the possession of significant anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of D. malabarica extract which could be helpful for drug development program. Before potential therapeutic use, finding of the exact phytoconstituents with their mechanisms, and clinical trial are recommended.