01.03.2016 | Original Article | Ausgabe 2/2016
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a potential biomarker for early detection of acute renal failure
Comparative Clinical Pathology
- Ahmad Fauzi, Siti Isrina Oktavia Salasia, Nurina Titisari
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a biomarker that can potentially be used for the detection of acute renal failure earlier and more accurately than current standard examinations, such as serum levels of creatinine and urea which are less sensitive and less specific. The objective of this research was to assess the ability of NGAL as a biomarker of acute renal failure by comparing the levels of serum urea and creatinine in rats with induced acute renal failure. Twelve male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), 2 months of age with a body weight (BW) of 150–200 g, were allocated into two groups. Group I (n = 2), as the control group, were injected with sterile distilled water 10 mL/kg BW intramuscularly and group II (n = 10) were injected with 50 % glycerol 10 mL/kg BW intramuscular, the rats in all group had been fasting 12 h before injection. In group II, two rats were selected at each time point (0, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h after injection) bloods collected for analysis of urea and creatinine concentration and identification of NGAL and they were necropsied and the kidney removed for histopathological analysis and NGAL identification. The levels of creatinine and urea were analysed by independent t test. Identification of NGAL was conducted by one-step reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Results showed that the glycerol injection significantly elevated the levels of urea at 6, 12 and 24 h compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Creatinine levels were significantly increased at 24 h compared to the control group (p < 0.05). The expression of NGAL in kidney and blood samples could be detected at 6, 12 and 24 h after induction. In conclusion, the blood NGAL could be detected before increasing of creatinine levels and could be used as an early detection of acute renal failure.